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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.46.2006.tde-04052007-133444
Document
Author
Full name
Elvis Medeiros de Aquino
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Moreno, Paulo Roberto Hrihorowitsch (President)
Campos, Ivan Pérsio de Arruda
Yoshida, Massayoshi
Title in Portuguese
Análise química e biológica dos alcalóides de aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. e de aspidosperma tomentosum Mart
Keywords in Portuguese
Alcalóides
Aspidosperma
Atividade biológica
Abstract in Portuguese
Mesmo antes do advento da escrita, o homem já buscava na natureza a cura para suas doenças. Dentre as diferentes classes de produtos naturais usados para esse fim, destaca-se a dos alcalóides, por exibir relevante diversidade estrutural e farmacológica, e que tem como fonte importante o gênero Aspidosperma, do qual foram isolados alcalóides que têm sido usados nas terapias atuais. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar os alcalóides obtidos a partir de diferentes partes de duas espécies ainda pouco exploradas: Aspidosperma ramiflorum e Aspidosperma tomentosum quanto à sua composição e atividades antifúngica, antimicrobiana e antitumoral. Foram identificados através de Cromatografia à Gás acoplada à Espectrometria de Massas (CG-EM) e Ressonância Magnetica Nuclear os alcalóides beta-ioimbina, nos pericarpos e arilos de A. ramiflorum, uleína, nas folhas, ramos e sementes de A. tomentosum, além de quebrachamina e razinilama, nos arilos e sementes dessa espécie. Adicionalmente, com base na literatura e nos resultados das análises por CG-EM verificou-se em A. tomentosum a presença de desmetileno-oxa-uleína, nas folhas, de eburnamonin-19-ona nos ramos e de di-hidro-razinilama, de aspidospermidina e também de di-hidro-razinilama e de 1-acetil-17-metóxi-aspidospermidina nas sementes e arilos dessa mesma espécie. Nenhum dos extratos de alcalóides totais ou alcalóides isolados apresentou atividade antibacteriana relevante. Verificou-se atividade antitumoral em extratos de alcalóides dos pericarpos de A. ramiflorum e dos ramos, folhas e arilos de A. tomentosum. Observou-se ainda atividade antifúngica em todos os extratos de alcalóides ensaiados, além de atividade específica contra isolados de Criptococcus neoformans resistentes ao fluconazol para os alcalóides quebrachamina e beta-ioimbina. O extrato de alcalóides totais das folhas de A. tomentosum, além da atividade frente a essas leveduras, também se mostrou ativo frente a duas espécies de Candida (C. krusei e C. parapsilosis). Concluiu-se a partir dos resultados obtidos que as duas espécies estudadas podem ser consideradas fontes promissoras de alcalóides que poderão ser utilizados como modelos para novos fármacos antifúngicos e antitumorais.
Title in English
Chemical and biological analisys of the alkaloids from aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg and aspidosperma tomentosum Mart
Keywords in English
Alkaloids
Aspidosperma
Biological activity
Abstract in English
Even before the advent of writing, man already searched the nature for the cure of his illnesses. Among the different classes of natural products used for this purpose, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids exhibit large structural and pharmacological diversities and these compounds are commonly found in the Aspidosperma genus. In this context, the present work had as main goals to investigate the alkaloids from different parts of two poorly studied species, Aspidosperma ramiflorum and Aspidosperma tomentosum, regarding their composition and antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumoral activities. Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Ressonance analysis allowed the identification of the following alkaloids: beta-yohimbine, in the pericarp and arils of A. ramiflorum; uleine, in leaves, branches and seeds of A. tomentosum; quebrachamine and rhazinilam, in the arils and seeds of the same species. Moreover, based on literature data and the results of the GC-MS analysis was characterized in A. tomentosum the presence of oxo-uleine, in the leaves and stems, eburnamonine, in the stems, and rhazinilam, aspidospermidine, dihydrorhazinilam and 1-acetyl-17-methoxy-aspidospermidine like alkaloids in the seeds and arils. Neither crude alkaloid extracts nor isolated alkaloids presented a relevant antibacterial activity. An antitumoral activity could be detected in crude alkaloids extracts from pericarps of A. ramiflorum and from stems, leaves and arils of A. tomentosum. On the other hand, antifungal activity was observed in all crude alkaloid extracts assayed, besides a specific activity of the alkaloids quebrachamine and beta-yohimbine against fluconazol resistant Criptococcus neoformans. Additionally, it was observed that crude alkaloid extract from leaves of A. tomentosum was also active against two Candida species (C. krusei e C. parapsilosis), as well as to the C. neoformans isolate. From these results we can conclude that the two studied species has to be considerated as promising sources for antifungal and antitumor alkaloids to be used as models to design new drugs.
 
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Capa_Indice.pdf (107.27 Kbytes)
Capitulo1.pdf (853.74 Kbytes)
Capitulo2.pdf (1.60 Mbytes)
Capitulo3.pdf (154.86 Kbytes)
Capitulo4.pdf (71.13 Kbytes)
Capitulo5.pdf (23.90 Kbytes)
PAGINA084.pdf (1.82 Mbytes)
PAGINA094.pdf (1.65 Mbytes)
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Publishing Date
2007-10-18
 
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