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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.46.2016.tde-17082016-171034
Document
Author
Full name
Lucas Blanes
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2004
Supervisor
Committee
Terra, Clelia Ferreira (President)
Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea
Guimaraes, Margareth de Lara Capurro
Title in Portuguese
β-glicosidases e β-tioglicosidases de insetos
Keywords in Portuguese
Beta glicosidases
Enzimas
Enzimologia
Insetos (Biossíntese)
Tioglicosidase
Abstract in Portuguese
No tubo digestivo das larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus e Anastrepha pickeli há β-glicosidases capazes de clivar dissacarideos, β-glicosídeos tóxicos produzidos por plantas e substratos sintéticos. As β-glicosidases de A. fraterculus são pouco ativas e as de A. pickeli são bastante ativas sobre alguns compostos, entre eles linamarina, um glicosídeo cianogênico. Esse composto está presente, em altas concentrações, no fruto da mandioca do qual a larva se alimenta. A. fraterculus alimenta-se do fruto da goiaba e aparentemente consegue o carboidrato que necessita por ação de α-glicosidases, que são bem mais ativas do que as β. O fruto da mandioca não é tão nutritivo e A. pickeli deve aproveitar a glicose da linamarina para obter energia e consegue desintoxicar-se do aglicone tóxico. Rhynchosciara americana apresenta quatro β-glicosidases nas membranas microvilares intestinais, sendo três delas β-galactosidases. Dessas, duas são ativadas por Triton X-100 sendo que a glicosidase, de maior mobilidade eletroforética é ativada por este composto, com uma Ka de 4µM, um α de 0,5 e um β de 2. β-tioglicosidases foram demonstradas em afideos. Nós verificamos que ocorre a clivagem do tioglicosídeo sinigrina após separação das β-glicosidases digestivas do Lepidoptera Diatraea saccharalis por cromatografia hidrofóbica. Nesse inseto, a mesma enzima é capaz de clivar O- e S-glicosídeos com atividades semelhantes. Enzimas com essas características nunca foram descritas anteriormente. Esses experimentos ilustram a viabilidade das adaptações dos insetos na utilização de compostos formados for ligações β-glicosídicas, viabilizando a exploração de nutrientes normalmente inacessíveis a outros animais.
Title in English
β-glucosidase and β-tioglicosidases of insect
Keywords in English
Enzymes
Enzymology
Glycoside hydrolase
Insects (Biosynthesis)
Uncle Glycosidase
Abstract in English
Anastrepha fraterculus and Anastrepha pickeli have in their midguts 13-glycosidases able to hydrolase dissaccharides, synthetic substrate and plant toxic β-glucosides. β-glycosidases from A. fraterculus have low activity and the enzymes from A. pickeli may be highly active depending on the substrate used. Linamarin, a cyanogenic β-glucoside present in A. pickeli food (Manihot fruit) is easly hydrolysed by A. pickeli β-glycosidases (A. fraterculus eats on guava fruits and may obtain carbohydrate through the action of α-glycosidases, that are much more active them the β-glycosidases). A. pickeli probably uses glucose derived from linamarinan avoiding the effects of the toxic aglycon. Rhynchosciara americana has 4 β-glycosidases (3 galactosidases and I glucosidase) in their intestinal microvilar membranes. Two of these enzymes are activated by Triton X-100. In β glucosidase the activation has Ka= 4µM, α=0,5 e β=2. β-thioglycosidases occur in Aphids. One digestive β-glucosidase from Diatraea saccharalis resolved by hydrofobic chrornatography hydrolyses sinigrin. The same enzyme may hydrolyse O- and S-glucosides with the same efficienly. Enzymes with this specificity have never been described before. In this study we shown some adaptations of insects to use substrates with β-glycosidic bonds, allowing these organisrns to explore nutrients usualy avoided by other animals.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-08-17
 
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