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Doctoral Thesis
Full name
Fábio Herbst Florenzano
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
São Paulo, 1999
Politi, Mario Jose (President)
Ernandes, José Roberto
Freund, Maria Teresa Lamy
Petri, Denise Freitas Siqueira
Ribeiro, Ana Maria Carmona
Title in Portuguese
Uso do espalhamento de luz para o estudo do efeito de uréia sobre agregados supramoleculares e monitoramento do peso molecular em reações de polimerização
Keywords in Portuguese
Carreamento de drogas
Desenvolvimento de sistemas para monitorar polimer
Abstract in Portuguese
Nesta tese, dois projetos distintos que usaram a técnica do Espalhamento de Luz foram desenvolvidos. Estudou-se a influência de soluções concentradas de uréia sobre agregados supramoleculares de anfifilicos (ASA's), através de condutimetria, supressão de fluorescência e espalhamento de luz. A uréia causou aumento da concentração micelar crítica (CMC) em todos os sistemas micelares estudados. A uréia diminuiu a seletividade da ligação iônica entre cloreto e brometo em micelas de haleto de cetil-trimetil-amônio, estudada através de supressão de fluorescência. Este aditivo causou também aumento na segunda CMC de brometo de tetradeciltrimetil- amônio (TTAB) e diminuição do peso molecular das micelas em bastão formadas. Concluiu-se, desta primeira parte, que a uréia tende a interferir nas transições de fase apresentadas em sistemas micelares, provavelmente através da combinação dos mecanismos direto e indireto. A uréia apresenta potencial para uso como aditivo para modulação das propriedades estruturais de sistemas micelares. Na segunda parte da tese desenvolveu-se um sistema, baseado em espalhamento de luz, capaz de monitorar o peso molecular de polímeros durante a polimerização. O sistema foi eficiente no monitoramento da polimerização da N-vinil-pirrolidinona, mostrando que o peso molecular do polímero formado é constante durante a maior parte da reação. As teorias atuais de cinética de polimerização não foram capazes de explicar esse comportamento.
Title in English
Use of light scattering to study the effect of urea about supramolecular aggregates and monitoring of the molecular weight in polymerization reactions
Keywords in English
Drug loading
System development to monitor polimer
Abstract in English
Light scattering techniques (static and dynamic) were used to detenninate the effect of urea on supramolecular aggregates and to monitor on-line molar mass ofpolymerization reactions. For the first set of investigation it was already established that urea increases the CMC and the dissociation degree (α) of ionic micelles (CTABr, TTABr, and SDS). From fluorescence suppression studies it was found that urea diminishes the ionic binding in zwitterionic and cationic micelles as well as in cationic vesicles. Bromide and chloride ionic selectivity in cationic micelles was found to nearly disappear in the presence of urea. Light scattering (static) detenninations showed that the weight averaged molecular weight (Mw) ofboth SDS and CTABr are invariant by the presence of the denaturant. A slight increase in the excluded volume tenn (A2) was detected for CTABr in the presence of 3M urea. In parallel both A2 and the radius of gyration (γ) of two polyelectrolytes (PAA and Hyaluronic acid) were not affected by the presence of urea. Sphere-to-rod concentration transitions (2nd CMC) of TIABr micelles increased in the presence of urea and the MW of rod particles were observed to decrease. For the insoluble mixture of CTABr/Polystyrenesulfonate solubilization was achieved in the presence of 3M urea. These set of results were explained as a result of the dual effect of urea, that is, the indirect effect by changing the properties of the solvent and the direct effect by solvating the hydrophilic domain of the aggregates and contributing with a stronger dipole moment. The second set of experiments was directed towards the real-time, on-line monitoring of Mw of polymerization reactions. This new approach could be succeeded by the coupling a light scattering detector, an UV photometer and a differential refractometer on line with a HPLC system. Mw growth formed in the polymerization of N-vynil-pirrolidone was accomplished with a small inherent error. Within the studied conditions Mw reached a plateau at early polymerization stages, after that only an increase in the number of polymer kinetic chains was observed. Current kinetic models were unable to predict the observed Mw growth pattern. This system is of great importance in basic and technological applications by virtue of its on-line capability.
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