Mémoire de Maîtrise
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.45.2016.tde-27102017-150037
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Claudio Roberto de Oliveira
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
São Paulo, 2016
Directeur
Jury
Cordani, Lisbeth Kaiserlian (Président)
Paes, Angela Tavares
Silva, Claudia Borim da

Titre en portugais
Julgando sob incerteza: heurísticas e vieses e o ensino de probabilidade e estatística
Mots-clés en portugais
Ensino de estatística
Falácias
Heurísticas
Vieses
Resumé en portugais

Titre en anglais
Judging under uncertainty: heuristics and biases and teaching of probability and statistics
Mots-clés en anglais
Biases
Fallacies
Heuristics
Probability
Statistics teaching
Resumé en anglais
To find the contents of probability and statistics in high school in Brazil, the student is faced with a mathematical approach to the theory, the result of a school tradition in which mathematics has always been taught in a deterministic way, providing results and troubleshooting as if they were accurate within different contexts. It is what we see in a reference textbooks used by teachers in schools, where we find a highlight for permeated approach formalities and excessive formulas with notations of set theory, with little or sometimes total lack of discussions to enable a consistent view theory related to the disciplines of probability and statistics. Faced with such a scenario, many reasoning biases are found and often cited in studies related to teacher education with a focus on statistics education, such as errors and difficulties in designing concepts of probability and statistics. We will address the work of some authors on human reasoning which concentrates errors, biases and fallacies in a variety of mental patterns. The patterns are identified as heuristics that people use in judging under uncertainty, where they rely on a limited number of principles that reduce complex mental work to provide probability and predict values for simple trials systematically. We will use these very principles heuristic in a survey of these possible mental models to then be applied, in a second step, actions in the classroom. The purpose is to try to broaden the spectrum of student reasoning so that it has more basis to make estimates and forecasts in different contexts. Finally, these activities were tested in order to verify its effectiveness before mental models that may persist, as shown by the references, even for students and sufficiently trained in statistical professionals.

AVERTISSEMENT - Regarde ce document est soumise à votre acceptation des conditions d'utilisation suivantes:
Ce document est uniquement à des fins privées pour la recherche et l'enseignement. Reproduction à des fins commerciales est interdite. Cette droits couvrent l'ensemble des données sur ce document ainsi que son contenu. Toute utilisation ou de copie de ce document, en totalité ou en partie, doit inclure le nom de l'auteur.
Dissertacao.pdf (1.81 Mbytes)
Date de Publication
2018-04-16

AVERTISSEMENT: Apprenez ce que sont des œvres dérivées cliquant ici.
Tous droits de la thèse/dissertation appartiennent aux auteurs.
CeTI-SC/STI
© 2001-2024. Bibliothèque Numérique de Thèses et Mémoires de l'USP.