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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.44.2005.tde-19112015-093950
Document
Author
Full name
William Sallun Filho
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2005
Supervisor
Committee
Karmann, Ivo (President)
Piló, Luís Beethoven
Auler, Augusto Sarreiro
Ferrari, José Antonio
Riccomini, Claudio
Title in Portuguese
Geomorfologia e geoespeleologia do carste da Serra da Bodoquena, MS
Keywords in Portuguese
Carste
Espeleologia
Geomorfologia
Mato Grosso do Sul
Abstract in Portuguese
A Serra da Bodoquena constitui um planalto carbonático desenvolvido nas rochas do Grupo Corumbá (Neoproterozóico III - Faixa Paraguai), que se ressalta topograficamente das planícies do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. A análise morfológica em escala 1:60.000 permitiu compartimentar o carste da Serra da Bodoquena em três unidades principais. A primeira corresponde a um carste de recarga mista (predominantemente autogênica) com formas de carste labiríntico e carste poligonal desenvolvidas em calcários, situada no Planalto da Bodoquena. A segunda corresponde a um carste de recarga essencialmente autogênica, com morfologia de morros residuais e planícies cársticas com dolinas, composta principalmente de dolomitos, situada na Depressão do Rio Miranda. A última consiste de um carste interestratal desenvolvido sob os arenitos da Formação Aquidauana da Bacia do Paraná, no extremo sul da Serra da Bodoquena, situada na Depressão do Rio Miranda, com a presença de dolinas em arenitos. Apesar do sistema cárstico da Serra da Bodoquena possuir um aqüífero de condutos bem desenvolvido, evidenciado pelas nascentes cársticas, vales cegos no setor noroeste, dolinas e poços de abastecimento produtivos, as cavernas são pouco freqüentes e com pequeno desenvolvimento. Observam-se quatro padrões principais de cavernas, que ocorrem associados aos compartimentos de relevo: 1) salões de abatimento irregulares em planta e formando planos inclinados em seção longitudinal, as vezes se estendendo por até 90 m abaixo do nível d'água, na unidade dos morros residuais dolomíticos; 2) cavernas em rede anastomosada em planta, com condutos circulares a elípticos e ramificações anastomosadas em seção transversal em calcários, na unidade do carste labiríntico e carste poligonal e raramente em morros residuais e planícies; 3) cavernas meandrantes em planta, as vezes associados a sumidouros ativos ou inativos, com injeção alogênica na maioria dos casos em calcários na Unidade do carste labiríntico e carste poligonal; 4) Nascentes do tipo vauclusiana nas planícies de calcários, principalmente junto a escarpa leste do Planalto da Bodoquena. A existência de tectônica recente na Serra da Bodoquena foi constatada a partir de feições como: espeleotemas subaéreos submersos pelo menos a 16 m de profundidade abaixo do nível d'água mínimo da variação sazonal; planalto escarpado sustentado por calcários e planícies por dolomitos; porção norte do planalto com rios mais entalhados que o sul; estrutura linear relacionada à borda do Pantanal, que cruza a Serra da Bodoquena, observada em escala 1:250.000.
Title in English
not available
Keywords in English
not available
Abstract in English
The Bodoquena plateau, developed over the Corumbá Group (Neoproterozoic III - Paraguai Fold Belt), is a carbonate rock highland relative to the non carbonate lowlands of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, mid-western Brazil. Based on 1:60.000 scale morphological analysis of the karst topography, three main compartments were defined. The first one is a mixed recharge karst landforms, developed over limestone of the Bodoquena plateau. The second unit is characterized by essentially autogenic recharge, residual hills and karstic plains with dolines, developed mainly over dolomites of the Miranda river depression (lowlands). The third one, characterizes an interstratatl karst system in proterozoic limestones overlain by sandstones of the Aquidauana Formation of the Phanerozoic Paraná basin. This geomorphological unit is localized at the southern extremity of the Bodoquena plateau, exhibiting flat topography, with frequent dolines in sandstone, of up to 700 m in diameter. Although the Bodoquena karst system is well developed, as can be inferred based on the presence of several vauclusian springs, blind valleys in the northwest border, dolines and a deep conduit aquifer evidenced through productive water wells, the cave incidence is low as are their dimensions, considering the large carbonate rock exposure. Four cave patters were recognized, which are related to the above geomorphological units: 1) large irregular breakdown halls in plain view and dipping planes in longitudinal section (following bedding and joint surfaces), which frequently reach up to 90 m beneath the water table, sometimes with large lakes, as for example, the Lago Azul cave (Bonito municipality). This pattern is the most frequent cave type of the second unit, occurring at the dolomitic residual hills with karst plains; 2) network caves with anastomotic pattern in plan view and circular to elliptical conduits with lateral anastomosis in cross section. They occur mostly associated with the labyrinth and polygonal karst topography of the first morphological unit and rarely with the unit of residual hills and plains; 3) caves with meandering conduits in plan view, sometimes with active or inactive allogenic stream sinks, associated with the polygonal and labyrinth karst topography; 4) Steep dipping phreatic conduits, characterizing vauclusian springs, occurring at the limestone plain along the base of the eastern escarpment of the Bodoquena plateau. The recent tectonic activity along the Bodoquena plateau area was detected by the following features: vadose speleothems submerged at least 16 m beneath the lowest seasonal water level stage; limestone highland with the escarpment beside dolomitic lowlands; northern part of the carbonate plateau with deep entrenched river valleys in contrast with the southern sector of open valleys and less entrenchment; linear structure observed in 1:250.000 scale which marks the border of the Pantanal basin and crosses the Bodoquena plateau.
 
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Publishing Date
2015-11-26
 
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