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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.43.2014.tde-03112014-113545
Document
Author
Full name
José Maximiano Fernandes Pinheiro Junior
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Caldas, Marilia Junqueira (President)
Araki, Koiti
Canuto, Sylvio Roberto Accioly
Coluci, Vitor Rafael
Miranda, Paulo Barbeitas
Title in Portuguese
Propriedades eletrônicas de sistemas conjugados: importância da troca exata
Keywords in Portuguese
DFT
Interfaces
Polímeros conjugados
Abstract in Portuguese
Polímeros conjugados semicondutores tem atraído grande interesse nas últimas décadas devido às possíveis aplicações como componentes ativos em aplicações optoeletrônicas. A adequação destes semicondutores orgânicos para a fabricação de dispositivos depende do entendimento e controle de propriedades eletrônicas básicas: gap fundamental (Eg) e potencial de ionização (IP). Nesse contexto, estudos teóricos baseados em cálculos de primeiros princípios tem se mostrado muito úteis, uma vez que possibilitam a simulação de processos físicos em condições ideais, onde se pode analisar as propriedades eletrônicas de polímeros desconsiderando efeitos do ambiente ou desordem estrutural. A Teoria do Funcional da Densidade (DFT) tem se tornado o método mais comum para o cálculo da estrutura eletrônica do estado fundamental de uma ampla variedade de materiais orgânicos complexos. Embora cálculos DFT baseados na diferença de energias totais tem sido aplicados com sucesso para estimar IPs de moléculas pequenas, este método falha nas propriedades de sistemas conjugados longos. Realmente, a capacidade preditiva da DFT padrão com respeito as propriedades espectroscópicas é frequentemente limitada, entretanto o tratamento adequado das excitações eletrônicas através de abordagens de muitos corpos é ainda muito difícil para materiais orgânicos complexos. Funcionais híbridos que misturam uma fração () de troca exata (EX) não-local ao correspondente semi-local representam uma boa alternativa, embora a quantidade ideal de EX seja, em geral, dependente do sistema. Neste trabalho, adotamos um esquema não-empírico baseado na aproximação G0W0 para identificar o valor ótimo de para o funcional híbrido PBE no qual a correção de autoenergia para o orbital mais alto ocupado (HOMO) de Kohn-Sham generalisado é minimizado. Estudamos, com base nessa estratégia, a dependência com o comprimento das propriedades eletrônicas básicas em uma família de oligômeros conjugados 1D de trans-poliacetileno (TPA). Nossos cálculos mostram que a fração EX ótima (dependente do tamanho) incorporada ao PBEh reproduz com precisão os IPs experimentais determinados em fase gasosa,
Title in English
Electronic properties of conjugated systems role of exact exchange
Keywords in English
Conjugated systems
Electronic properties
Exact exchange
Abstract in English
Semiconducting conjugated polymers have attracted considerable interest over the past decades due to the promising applications as active components for optoelectronic applications. The suitability of such organic semiconductors for device fabrication relies on quantitative understanding and control of basic electronic properties: fundamental gap (Eg) and ionization potential (IP). In this context, theoretical studies based on first principles approaches have proven useful, through simulating physical processes in ideal conditions, in which one might analyse the electronic properties of polymers apart from the effects of the surrounding environment or structural disorder. Density Functional Theory (DFT) has become an usual choice for calculating the ground state electronic structure of a wide variety of complex organic materials. Although DFT calculations based on total energy differences have been successfully applied to estimate IPs of small molecules, they fail for properties of long conjugated systems. Indeed, the predictive ability of standard DFT with respect to spectroscopic properties is often limited, however a proper treatment of the electronic excitations through many-body approaches is still very difficult for complex organic materials. Hybrid functionals that mix a fraction (_) of nonlocal exact exchange (EX) with the semilocal counterpart represent a good alternative, although the ideal amount of EX is usually system dependent. In this work, we adopt a non-empirical scheme based on the G0W0 approximation to identify the optimum _ value for the PBE hybrid functional for which the self-energy correction to the generalized Kohn-Sham highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is minimized. Based on this strategy we study the size dependence of the basic electronic properties in a family of 1D _-conjugated oligomers of trans-polyacetylene (TPA). Our calculations demonstrate that the size dependent optimal EX fraction incorporated in PBEh accurately reproduces IPs from experimental gas phase data, although no particular constraint has been imposed a priori. Furthermore, we note that the optimum _-value decreases exponen tially with chain length going from _ w0.85 for the smaller oligomer (ethylene, n=1) up to _ w0.75 extrapolated for an isolated TPA chain. The accuracy of our optimized PBEh in predicting IPs and Eg is superior to other conventional mean field approaches, as demonstrated for a selected set of conjugated molecules such as acenes and phenylenes. As a result, we can obtain good estimations for the energy barriers of electron transfer in organic/organic interfaces. On the other extreme, we analyse the influence of exact exchange on the electronic structure of the prototypical metal system gold (Au), commonly used as electrode in organic devices. In this case, we confirm the expected result that the insertion of even a small fraction of EX into PBE functional distorts the Au band structure, worsening the description of electronic properties compared to regular PBE. We then proceed to analyse the factibility of studying polymer/metal interface systems using pure DFT. Our calculations reveal that the result is too system-dependent: for the TPA/Au(111) interface, an artificial charge transfer takes place at interface due to an underestimation of the IPs of the conjugated system inherent to the underlying DFT approximation. Finally, our study emphasizes the importance of a physically motivated choice of EX fraction in hybrid functionals for accurately predicting both ionization potentials and fundamental gaps of organic semiconductors relevant for nanoelectronics.
 
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Publishing Date
2014-11-05
 
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