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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.42.2018.tde-12032018-095955
Document
Author
Full name
Felipe da Costa Souza
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Colquhoun, Alison (President)
Andrade, Luciana Nogueira de Sousa
Campa, Ana
Santos, Marinilce Fagundes dos
Siviero, Fábio
Title in Portuguese
Eicosanoides como novos alvos terapêuticos no tratamento de glioblastoma humano.
Keywords in Portuguese
13-HODE
15-LOX-1
Câncer
Ciclooxigenases
CYP450
Eicosanoides
GBM
Glioblastoma
Lipoxigenases
Abstract in Portuguese
O Glioblastoma (GBM) é um astrocitoma grau IV, representando o glioma de maior malignidade e o tumor cerebral primário mais frequente em humanos. A terapia indicada para o GBM é a ressecção cirúrgica, quimioterapia e radioterapia, todas com baixíssima eficiência devido a agressividade e as características do GBM. Consequentemente, a sobrevida dos pacientes indicados aos tratamentos convencionais é pouco mais de um ano. A inflamação é, sabidamente, uma das características que participa de modo decisivo do desenvolvimento tumoral, incluindo do GBM, e as relações entre mediadores inflamatórios e câncer são alvos de pesquisa nos últimos anos. Diversos estudos apontam um papel da via dos eicosanoides na modulação de processos patológicos envolvidos na inflamação e no câncer. Os eicosanoides são mediadores lipídicos bioativos, envolvidos em diversos processos fisiológicos e patológicos, em especial os associados à resposta inflamatória. As principais vias de produção de eicosanoides (ciclooxigenases, lipoxigenases, e citocromo P450), assim como seus produtos, são frequentemente alterados em diversos tipos de tumor, associados ao crescimento e a progressão tumoral. Contudo, o perfil dessas vias é consideravelmente pouco compreendido em GBM. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar in vitro o perfil e o papel das três vias de eicosanoides e seus produtos (eicosanoides ou não) nas linhagens de GBM (U251-MG, U87-MG, A172, T98G e U138-MG), modulando a atividade de enzimas chaves com drogas especificas para, então, analisar parâmetros de proliferação, migração e morte celular. Nossos resultados mostram, em todas as linhagens analisadas, um perfil heterogêneo das enzimas e receptores chaves das três vias. O perfil lipídico evidencia a produção de 13-HODE, produto de 15-lipoxigenase-1 em todas as linhagens, bem como ausência de leucotrienos e 5-HETE do eixo de 5-lipoxigenase. Os inibidores farmacológicos para 15-LOX e 12-LOX/15-LOX foram capazes de reduzir o crescimento, modular o ciclo celular e a migração celular das linhagens U251-MG, U87-MG e A172. O mesmo é visto com a inibição de mPGES-1. A inibição de 5-LOX por outro lado não afetou nenhum parâmetro nas mesmas linhagens. Todos os resultados apontam, portanto, para um papel do eixo de 15-LOX e COX no crescimento e na migração das células de GBM humano.
Title in English
Eicosanoids as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of human glioblastoma.
Keywords in English
13-HODE
15-LOX-1
Cancer
Cyclooxygenase
CYP450
Eicosanoids
GBM
Glioblastoma
Lipoxygenases
Abstract in English
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a grade IV astrocytoma, the most malignant and the most frequent primary brain tumour in humans. Standard therapies for treating GBM are surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, all with low efficiency due to GBM aggressiveness and characteristics. Therefore, patient survival after conventional treatments is about one year. Inflammation is one of the main characteristics that plays a decisive role in tumour development, including in GBM. The relationships between inflammatory mediators and cancer have been the subject of research in recent years. Several studies point to the eicosanoid pathways as modulators of pathological processes between inflammation and cancer. Eicosanoids are bioactive lipid mediators, involved in various physiological and pathological processes, especially those associated with the inflammatory response. The major eicosanoid pathways (cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450) as well as their products, are frequently altered in several tumours, associated with tumour growth and progression. However, the profile of these pathways is poorly understood in GBM. The objective of this study was to analyse, in vitro, the profile and role of eicosanoid pathways and their products (eicosanoids or not) in GBM cell lines (U251-MG, U87-MG, A172, T98G and U138-MG), modulating the key enzymes with inhibitors, analysing proliferation, migration and cell death. Our results show, in all analysed cell lines, a heterogeneous profile for the key enzymes and receptors of the three pathways. The lipid profile shows the production of 13-HODE, a product of 15-lipoxygenase-1, as well the absence of leukotrienes and 5-HETE of the 5-lipoxygenase axis. The pharmacological inhibitors for 15-LOX and 12-LOX / 15-LOX led to changes in cell cycle, reduced growth, reduced migration of U251-MG, U87-MG and A172 cell lines. The same was seen with the inhibition of mPGES-1. Inhibition of 5-LOX, on the other hand, did not affect any of these parameters in the same cell lines. All results, therefore, point to an important role of 15-LOX and COX pathways in the growth and migration of human GBM cells.
 
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Release Date
2020-03-11
Publishing Date
2018-03-12
 
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