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Doctoral Thesis
Full name
Tárcio Teodoro Braga
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
São Paulo, 2014
Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva (President)
Bortoluci, Karina Ramalho
Rabinovitch, Michel Pinkus
Zamboni, Dario Simões
Zatz, Roberto
Title in Portuguese
Participação de diferentes subtipos de macrófagos e a contribuição do ácido úrico solúvel, dos receptores TLR2 e TLR4 e das moléculas MyD88 e NLRP3 para o desenvolvimento da fibrose renal.
Keywords in Portuguese
Ácido úrico solúvel
Fibrose renal
Resposta imune Th2
Abstract in Portuguese
A doença renal crônica é uma doença mediada pelo sistema imune e caracterizada por fibrose. Camundongos deficientes em TLR2, TLR4, MyD88 e NLRP3 se mostraram protegidos frente ao dano renal e à deposição de colágeno após serem submetidos à obstrução unilateral do ureter (UUO). Além disso, os camundongos protegidos exibiram menor produção de citocinas relacionadas com um perfil imune Th2 e apresentaram menor acúmulo de macrófagos do subtipo M2. Inicialmente, creditamos aos macrófagos M2 o papel de macrófagos formadores de fibrose uma vez que tal subpopulação é encontrada em maior número aos sete dias após a UUO em animais WT, porém, vimos que os personagens centrais no desenvolvimento da fibrose são macrófagos M1, encontrados no início da lesão renal. Também vimos que o ácido úrico é a molécula capaz de induzir a troca de fenótipo de M1 para M2 ao longo da UUO, além de ser capaz de ativar a via do inflamassoma. O ácido úrico solúvel é liberado em um contexto de hipóxia e ativa o complexo do inflamassoma NLRP3 por mecanismos diferentes, mas complementares.
Title in English
Involvement of different subtypes of macrophages and the contribution of soluble uric acid, the receptors TLR2 and TLR4 and MyD88 and NLRP3 molecules to the development of renal fibrosis.
Keywords in English
Renal fibrosis
Soluble uric acid
Th2 immune response
Abstract in English
Chronic kidney disease is an immune mediated disease characterized by fibrosis development. The damaged tissue releases molecules such as soluble uric acid resulting from the degradation of extracellular matrix or dead cells, which activate TLR and NLR, leading to the translocation of MyD88 in many cell types. This modulation of the immune system interferes with the activation of different subtypes of macrophages and activity of CD4+ T cells, with the Th1/Th2 paradigm as a possible effector mechanism of fibrosis. TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and NLRP3 deficient mice are protected against renal damage and collagen deposition after being submitted to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), when compared to wild type animals. Moreover, protected mice exhibited less production of Th2 related cytokines and reduced accumulation of M2 macrophages. Initially, we hypothesized M2 macrophages are responsible for fibrosis formation since this subset is found in greater numbers seven days after UUO in WT mice, however, we observed the central characters on the development of fibrosis are M1 macrophages found in the onset of renal injury. These data were confirmed by the injection of Stat6 KO M1 macrophages into Rag deficient mice previously depleted of macrophages and subjected to UUO, in which we observed higher proteinuria and increased collagen deposition. We also observed that uric acid is able to induce the exchange of phenotype from M1 to M2 along the UUO, besides being able to activate the inflammasome pathway. The soluble uric acid is released in the context of hypoxia and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome complex by different, but complementary mechanisms. Therefore, the renal damage releases soluble uric acid, which signals via innate immune receptors, and the damage brings as a consequence the deposition of proteins in the renal interstitium, culminating in fibrosis.
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