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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.41.2022.tde-04052022-191513
Document
Author
Full name
Domingo Lago Barcia
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2022
Supervisor
Committee
Baz, Fernando Jesús Carbayo (President)
Bulnes, Verónica Natalia
Janssen, Carolina Noreña
Negrete, Lisandro Héctor Luis
Title in Portuguese
Diversidade e endemismos na mata Atlântica de planárias terrestres (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida)
Keywords in Portuguese
endêmicas
filogenia.
Geoplanidae
planárias
taxonomia
terrestre
Abstract in Portuguese
Na presente tesis de doutorado analizamos a taxonomia, filogenia e áreas de endemismo (AoE) de planárias terrestres (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Geoplaninae) que habitam o Sul da Mata Atlântica, desde o Estado de Espírito Santo, até o Estado de Rio Grande do Sul, chegando até a Argentina em direção Oeste. Describimos seis espécies novas pertencentes aos gêneros Cratera e Choeradoplana, e revisamos outras seis espécies mais pertencentes aos gêneros Cratera, Choeradoplana, Geoplana e Pseudogeoplana. Também emendamos a diagnose de dois gêneros (Cratera e Choeradoplana). Analisamos as relações evolutivas dos membros da subfamilia usando seis marcadores moleculares combinados com dados morfológicos em uma análise de Total Evidence. Esta nova abordagem gerou uma filogenia melhor resolvida dos Geoplaninae, apesar de se encontrar longe de estar completamente resolvida. Mesmo assim, alguns clados supragenericos podem ser diagnosticados por sinapomorfias morfológicas. Comfirmamos que alguns caracteres morfológicos tradicionalmente usados nas diagnoses de gêneros são simplesiomorficos ou sofreram de homoplasia através dos Geoplaninae. Também identificamos várias AoE analizando a distribuição de 371 espécies descritas e não descritas. As planárias terrestres são um táxon especioso. A maioria das espécies apresenta distribuições geográficas pequenas devido a sua baixa vagilidade. Em troca, apresentam altos níveis de endemicidade na área de estudo. Um total de 18 AoE foram identificadas. Devido a alta sensibilidade às modificações ambientais destes animais, são um importante táxon para analisar o estado de conservação das florestas e sua estabilidade no tempo. Os nossos resultados contribuem para um melhor entendimento da riqueza morfológica e taxonômica das planárias terrestres, as relações evolutivas entre os representantes do grupo e para identificar as suas distribuições endêmicas.
Title in English
Land planarian (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) diversity and endemisms in the Atlantic forest
Keywords in English
endemic
flatworms
Geoplanidae
phylogeny.
taxonomy
terrestrial
Abstract in English
In the present PhD thesis we analyze the taxonomy, phylogeny and areas of endemism (AoE) of land planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Geoplaninae) inhabiting the Southern Atlantic forest, from the State of Espirito Santo, to the State of Rio Grande do Sul, westward ranging up to Argentina. We described six new species belonging to the genera Cratera and Choeradoplana, and revised another six species belonging to the genera Cratera, Choeradoplana, Geoplana and Pseudogeoplana. We also emended the diagnosis of two genera (Cratera and Choeradoplana). The evolutionary relationships amongst the members of the subfamily were analyzed with the use of six different molecular markers combined with morphological data in a Total Evidence analysis. This new approach generated a better resolved phylogeny of the Geoplaninae, although it is far from being fully resolved. Still, some suprageneric clades can be diagnosed by morphological synapomorphies. It is also acknowledged that some morphological characters traditionally used in the diagnoses of the genera are symplesiomorphic or suffered from homoplasy across Geoplaninae as well. We also identified several AoE analyzing planarian distributions of 371 described and undescribed species. Land planarians are a specious taxon. Most of the species present a small geographical distribution due to their low vagility. In turn, they present high levels of endemicity throughout the study area. A total of 18 AoE were identified. Due to their sensitivity to modifications in their environment they are an important taxon when analyzing the state of conservation of forests and their temporal stability. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the morphological and taxonomic richness of the land planarians, the evolutionary relationships among the representatives of the group, and to identify their endemic distributions.
 
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Tesis_FINAL2021.pdf (20.73 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2022-05-13
 
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