• JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
 
  Bookmark and Share
 
 
Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.41.2009.tde-24022010-112022
Document
Author
Full name
Flavio Gomes da Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Lohmann, Lucia Garcez (President)
Buzato, Silvana
Oliveira, Cláudia Helena Cysneiros Matos de
Title in Portuguese
Evolução de acarodomácias em Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae)
Keywords in Portuguese
Acarodomácias
Bignonieae
Mutualismo planta-ácaro benéfico
Abstract in Portuguese
Acarodomácias (ou domácias foliares) são cavidades ou tufos de tricomas localizados nas axilas entre as nervuras na face abaxial das folhas. Por meio dessas estruturas, várias espécies de angiospermas lenhosas estabelecem um mutualismo com ácaros benéficos (fungívoros e predadores). Nessa simbiose, as domácias foliares fornecem abrigo e proteção aos ácaros contra inimigos naturais e dessecação, enquanto os ácaros protegem as plantas contra fungos patogênicos e artrópodes fitófagos. Essas estruturas estão presentes em várias espécies da tribo Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae), um grupo monofilético com cerca de 382 espécies de lianas e arbustos neotropicais. A notável variedade de acarodomácias na tribo, somada à disponibilidade de uma filogenia robusta do grupo, torna Bignonieae um excelente modelo para investigar a evolução dessas estruturas. O presente trabalho visou caracterizar as acarodomácias de Bignonieae e estudar a evolução dessas estruturas no grupo. Além disso, realizou testes de correlação entre a evolução de acarodomácias e a de outras características potencialmente associadas à acarofilia: pilosidade foliolar e nectários extraflorais (NEFs). As acarodomácias estão presentes em 58 das 103 espécies analisadas, abrangendo 12 dos 20 gêneros da tribo presentes na filogenia. Foi constatada a presença de domácias primárias, secundárias e terciárias, e dos componentes bolso, tricomas e cova. A variação intra-específica constatada para esses caracteres foi marcante. Além disso, todos eles revelaram-se homoplásticos (múltiplas evoluções e reversões). Foi encontrada uma correlação positiva entre os padrões de evolução de domácias primárias, secundárias e terciárias, e um surgimento sequencial dessas estruturas: primeiro surgiram as domácias primárias, depois as secundárias e, por fim, as terciárias. Quanto aos componentes, bolso e tricomas mostraram-se onipresentes e revelaram uma evolução correlacionada; a evolução do componente cova, por sua vez, não se mostrou correlacionada a dos outros componentes. O padrão de evolução de pilosidade foliolar revelou que, em geral, primeiro surgiram tricomas sobre as nervuras e, posteriormente, os tricomas se estenderam pela lâmina. A evolução de acarodomácias também se mostrou correlacionada à de pilosidade foliolar. É possível que a pilosidade e as acarodomácias atuem em conjunto no mutualismo planta-ácaro benéfico. Adicionalmente, constatou-se que as evoluções de acarodomácias estão sempre relacionadas à presença de tricomas, sugerindo que os tricomas devem ter uma papel especial na acarofilia. Não se observou correlação entre a evolução de domácias foliares e a de NEFs. Este estudo representa o primeiro trabalho sobre a evolução de acarodomácias, e traz importantes subsídios para pesquisas futuras sobre diferentes aspectos da biologia dessas estruturas em Bignonieae, especialmente no que tange a interação planta-ácaro benéfico.
Title in English
Evolution of acarodomatia in Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae)
Keywords in English
Acarodomacia
Bignonieae
Plant-mite mutualism
Abstract in English
Acarodomatia (or leaf domatia) are cavities or hair tufts found on the axils of veins on the abaxial surface of leaves. Several species of woody angiosperms mediate a mutualism with benefic mites (fungivorous and predaceous) through these structures. In this symbiotic relation, the leaf domatia provide refuge and protection to mites against natural enemies and desiccating conditions, while the mites protect the plants against pathogenic fungi and phytophagous arthropods. These structures are present in many species of the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae), a monophyletic group with approximately 382 species of neotropical lianas and shrubs. The wide variation of acarodomatia in the tribe associated with the availability of a robust phylogeny for the group makes Bignonieae an excellent model to address the evolution of these structures. The objective of this study was to characterize the acarodomatia of Bignonieae and investigate the evolution of these structures in the group. Furthermore, this study intended to test for correlated patterns of evolution between leaf domatia and traits potentially associated with acarophily: leaflet pubescence and extra floral nectaries (EFNs). Acarodomatia were found in 58 of the 103 analyzed species, representing 12 of the 20 genera of Bignonieae sampled within the phylogeny of the group. Primary, secondary and tertiary domatia were encountered, as well three different domatia components: pocket, trichomes and pit. High intraspecific variation was encountered in those traits. Furthermore, high homoplasy was also encountered, with multiple evolutions and reversals of each trait being documented. A positive correlation in the pattern of evolution of the primary, secondary and tertiary domatia was found, as well as a sequential evolution of these structures: first primary domatia evolved, which was followed by the evolution of secondary domatia and, subsequently the evolution of tertiary domatia. As far as the components of the acarodomatia are concerned, pockets and trichomes were omnipresent and their evolutionary pattern correlated. The evolution of the pit, on the other hand, was not associated to the evolution of any of the other components. The evolutionary pattern of leaf pubescence indicated that, in general, trichomes over the veins of the leaflets evolved first and subsequently spread throughout the blade. The evolutionary pattern of acarodomatia was also shown to be correlated with the evolution of leaflet pubescence. It is possible that pubescence and acarodomatia might act together to promote a beneficial plant-mite mutualism. In addition, the multiple origins of the acarodomatia were always associated with the presence of trichomes, suggesting that trichomes must have had an important role in acarophily. No correlation was found between the evolution of leaf domatia and the evolution of EFNs. This study represents the first investigation of the evolution of acarodomatia, and brings important contributions for future studies on different aspects of the biology of these structures in Bignonieae, especially in what concerns the beneficial association between plants and mites.
 
WARNING - Viewing this document is conditioned on your acceptance of the following terms of use:
This document is only for private use for research and teaching activities. Reproduction for commercial use is forbidden. This rights cover the whole data about this document as well as its contents. Any uses or copies of this document in whole or in part must include the author's name.
Flavio_Gomes_Silva.pdf (64.59 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2010-02-26
 
WARNING: Learn what derived works are clicking here.
All rights of the thesis/dissertation are from the authors
Centro de Informática de São Carlos
Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations of USP. Copyright © 2001-2021. All rights reserved.