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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.41.2010.tde-22022011-164317
Document
Author
Full name
Daniela Kajihara
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Rossi, Maria Magdalena (President)
Gaspar, Marília
Miura, Regina Yuri Hashimoto
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização dos genes mustang em gramíneas com ênfase no estudo funcional em cana-de-açúcar
Keywords in Portuguese
Elementos transponíveis
Genes mustang
Genética molecular de plantas
Mutator
Transposases
Abstract in Portuguese
Os elementos transponíveis constituem grande parte do genoma das plantas, particularmente em gramíneas, constituem entre 50 a 80% do conteúdo genômico. Recentemente, foi demonstrado que estes elementos servem como fonte de material genético para a formação de novos genes e novas redes regulatórias. O SUCEST, projeto de seqüenciamento de ESTs de cana-de-açúcar da FAPESP, gerou a seqüência parcial de 237.954 mRNA de diversos tecidos e condições fisiológicas, fornecendo valiosa informação sobre o transcriptoma deste cultivo. Um levantamento dos elementos transponíveis nesse genoma mostrou que o transposon Mutator é o mais expresso. A superfamília Mutator foi amplamente estudada em cana-de-açúcar, arroz e Arabidopsis thaliana e se constatou que o sistema está composto por dois clados de transposons verdadeiros (Classe I e Classe II) e dois clados de transposases domesticadas (Classe III e Classe IV), chamadas mustang. As transposases domesticadas são seqüências derivadas de transposons, que perderam a capacidade de se mobilizar, e adquiriram função celular. Recentemente, foram clonadas e seqüenciadas, pelo nosso grupo, duas cópias genômicas da Classe III e uma da Classe IV. Para somar evidências que permitam desvendar a função das proteínas MUSTANG, este trabalho realizou uma análise comparativa destes genes em gramíneas assim como o estudo da atividade transcricional em cana-de-açúcar. Desta forma, foram identificados os loci ortólogos no genoma de sorgo e milho, e foi possível verificar que os genes mustang são altamente conservados. As putativas regiões regulatórias dos genes de cana-de-açúcar apresentaram diversos motivos de união a fatores de transcrição envolvidos na resposta a luz, hormônios e estresse. Fusões com genes repórteres permitiram demonstrar que as regiões estudadas são promotores transcricionais ativos. Adicionalmente, a obtenção de linhagens de células de fumo transgênicas viabilizou experimentos que permitiram revelar que os promotores dos genes mustang são modulados por fitohormônios. O perfil transcricional para ambas as classes revelou que estes genes são expressos de forma ubíqua, sendo o meristema o tecido que apresenta maiores níveis relativos de mRNA. A análise integrada dos resultados obtidos sugere o possível envolvimento das proteínas MUSTANG na manutenção da homeostase da resposta hormonal.
Title in English
Characterization of mustang genes in grasses with emphasis on functional study in sugarcane
Keywords in English
Molecular genetics of plants
Mustang genes
Mutator
Tranposases
Transposable elements
Abstract in English
Transposable elements constitute a vast quantity of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, they comprise between 50 to 80% of genomic content. Recently, it has been demonstrated that these elements are source of genetic material for new genes creation and new regulatory network establishment. The Brazilian Sugarcane EST Sequencing Project, SUCEST, financed by FAPESP, generated 237.954 mRNA partial sequence derived from several tissues and different physiological conditions, providing a wide range of information of sugarcane transcriptome. A wide spectrum of transposable elements was identified, revealing the Mutator transposon as the most abundantly expressed transposable element in sugarcane genome. The Mutator superfamily was deeply explored in Arabidopsis, sugarcane and rice and it was found that the system comprises two clades of bona fide transposons (Class I and Class II), and two clades of domesticated transposases (Class III and Class IV), named mustang. The domesticated transposases are sequences that have lost their movement capacity and, acquired cellular function. Recently, two genomic copies of Class III and one for Class IV have been cloned and sequenced by our group. In order to gain evidences for unraveling the function of MUSTANG proteins, this work performs a comparative sequence analysis of these genes in grass genomes and a transcriptional activity profile study in sugarcane. Thus, the orthologous loci from sorghum and maize were identified, and it was verified that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. The putative promoter region of sugarcane genes displayed several transcription factor motifs involved in light, hormone and stress response. Reporter gene fusions showed that the studied regions are indeed transcriptional active promoters. Furthermore, transgenic lines of tobacco BY-2 cells demonstrated that the sugarcane mustang genes are modulated by phytohormones. The expression profile revealed that both classes are ubiquitously transcribed being the meristem the tissue that shows higher relative expression levels. The integrated analysis of these results suggests a possible involvement of MUSTANG proteins in the homeostasis maintenance of hormonal response.
 
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Publishing Date
2011-03-23
 
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