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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.41.2007.tde-17072007-153810
Document
Author
Full name
Antonio Carlos do Amaral Maia
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Neves, Walter Alves (President)
Murrieta, Rui Sergio Sereni
Queiroz, Renato da Silva
Title in Portuguese
"O avunculado na Antropologia Evolutiva: uma abordagem intercultural"
Keywords in Portuguese
Altruísmo recíproco
Átomo de parentesco
Ciúme
Conflito entre prole e parentais
Conflitos familiares
Dilema do prisioneiro
Direito de Família
Ecologia comportamental evolutiva
Estruturalismo
Evolucionismo
Investimento parental masculino
Psicologia evolutiva
Seleção de consangüíneos
Seleção sexual
Teoris dos jogos
Abstract in Portuguese
O presente trabalho se propõe a compreender a variabilidade cultural humana em relação à organização da família por meio das teorias darwinianas da seleção natural e da seleção sexual, e se encontra baseado em evidências vindas da comparação de dados etnográficos. Pretende-se demonstrar que existe uma alteração marcante no comportamento de todos os envolvidos nas relações familiares quando mudam as regras de herança. Essas alterações assim ocorrem porque as regras de herança direcionam o Investimento Parental Masculino (MPI), ora ao sobrinho, ora ao filho. A hipótese apresentada é a de que a variação do MPI modifica de maneira compreensível e previsível as relações familiares em organizações matrilineares e patrilineares. A prova da hipótese será feita por meio da aplicação do método intercultural com pesquisa etnográfica nos bancos de dados do HRAF, e utilizando-se da amostra PSF. Os resultados do presente trabalho indicarão que em sociedades em que o tio tem uma relação afetuosa com seu sobrinho, o marido espanca a mulher; e quando o pai se relaciona de maneira indulgente e amigável com seu filho, irmãos e irmãs se evitam, alinhando esses fatos de maneira que possam ser coerentemente entendidos com a teoria sociobiológica. A riqueza cultural, o sem número de costumes, as tradições, os tabus, as normas explícitas ou ocultas, os aparatos de coerção de toda sorte, as regras sobre herança, casamento, dote, preço da noiva, divisão de trabalho, enfim, todas as regras observadas em todos os agrupamentos humanos podem ser explicadas à luz das seguintes teorias: a) da “seleção de consangüíneos” (Hamilton, 1963), b) do “altruísmo recíproco” (Trivers, 1971), c) do “investimento parental e seleção sexual” (Trivers, 1972), e d) do “conflito entre prole e parentais” (Trivers, 1974).
Title in English
"The avunculate in the evolutionary anthropology: a cross cultural survey"
Keywords in English
Atom of kinship
Behavioral ecology
Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionism
Family conflicts
Family law
Game theory
Jealous
Kinship slection
Male parental investiment
Parent-Offspring conflict
Prisoner's dilemma
Reciprocal altruism
Sexual selection
Structuralism
Abstract in English
The present work proposes to account for cultural variability in connection to human family organization, through Darwin’s theories of natural selection and sexual selection. It is also founded on evidence based on the comparison of ethnographic data of diverse human societies. It intends to demonstrate that there is a significant alteration in the behavior of family members when the rules of inheritance of wealth change. These alterations are triggered because the rules of inheritance dictate the MPI – Male Parental Investment – sometimes in the nephew and sometimes in the son. The hypothesis is that this variation in MPI (male investment in either the nephew or the son) modifies family relations in matrilineal and patrilineal organizations in a predictable manner. The role played by MPI in determining family tensions will be shown by applying cross cultural analysis to the data obtained from HRAF (Human Relations Area Files), using PSF (Probability Sample Files). The results of the present work show that societies in which the uncle’s relation with his nephew is affectionate, the husband beats the wife; on the other hand, when the father’s relation with his son is indulgent and friendly, brother and sister avoid each other. This variability of behavior can be coherently explained by sociobiological theory. Cultural wealth: the innumerable customs, the traditions, the taboos, the manifest and hidden norms, the apparatus of coercion, the rules of inheritance, marriage, dowry, bride price, the division of labor, in short, all the rules observed in all human groups can be explained in the light of the following theories: a) ‘kinship selection’ (Hamilton, 1963); b) ‘reciprocal altruism’ (Trivers, 1971; Axelrod, 1981); c) ‘parental investment and sexual selection’ (Trivers, 1972); and d) ‘parentoffspring conflict’ (Trivers, 1974).
 
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Publishing Date
2007-08-13
 
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