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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.3.2012.tde-26072013-115944
Document
Author
Full name
Áquila Neves Chaves
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Cugnasca, Paulo Sérgio (President)
Brandão, Anarosa Alves Franco
Weigang, Li
Title in Portuguese
Proposta de modelo de veículos aéreos não tripulados (VANTs) cooperativos aplicados a operações de busca.
Keywords in Portuguese
Algoritmos de navegação
Operações de busca e salvamento
Sistemas multiagentes
VANTs cooperativos
Veículos aéreos não tripulados
Abstract in Portuguese
Os Veículos Aéreos Não Tripulados (VANTs) são ideais para operações de risco e estressante para o ser humano são as chamadas dull, dirty and dangerous missions. Portanto, uma importante aplicação desse tipo de robô aéreo diz respeito a operações de busca envolvendo múltiplos VANTs cooperativos, em que há risco de colisões entre aeronaves e o tempo de um voo é limitado, entre outros fatores, pela capacidade de um piloto trabalhar sem descanso. Entretanto, apesar de atualmente verificar-se um crescente número de pesquisas envolvendo VANTs e do grande potencial existente na utilização de VANTs, operações de busca cooperativas ainda não estão ocorrendo. Esse assunto é uma área de estudo multidisciplinar e nascente, que possui diversas linhas de pesquisa. Diferentes algoritmos de navegação e padrões de busca foram estudados visando selecionar o(s) mais adequado(s). Além disso, apresenta-se, neste trabalho, uma visão geral sobre os mecanismos de coordenação multiagente e avalia a adequação de cada uma delas à coordenação distribuída de agentes (VANTs), visando cooperação. Assim, com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho de uma operação de busca, esta pesquisa de mestrado propõe um modelo de VANTs cooperativos que combina mecanismos de coordenação multiagente, algoritmos de navegação e padrões de busca estabelecidos pelos principais órgãos responsáveis pelas operações de busca e salvamento. Visando avaliar a sensibilidade do percentual médio de detecção de objetos, bem como o tempo médio de busca, foi desenvolvido um simulador e milhares de simulações foram realizadas. Observou-se que, utilizando o modelo, VANTs cooperativos podem reduzir, em média, 57% do tempo de busca (comparando com uma busca de dois VANTs não cooperativos no mesmo cenário), mantendo a probabilidade média de detecção dos objetos próxima de 100% e sobrevoando apenas 30% do espaço de busca.
Title in English
Proposal of cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) model applied to search operations.
Keywords in English
Cooperative UAV
Multi-agent systems
Path planning algorithms
SAR operations
Search and rescue
Unmanned aerial vehicle
Abstract in English
There are an increasing number of researches into UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) in the literature. These robots are quite suitable to dull, dirty and dangerous missions. Thus, an important application of these vehicles is the search operations involving multiple UAVs in which there is risk of collisions among aircrafts and the flight time is limited by the maximum time of pilot working hours. However, despite the huge potential use of the UAVs, cooperative search operations with this kind of flying robots are not yet occurring. This research topic is a new and multidisciplinary area of study in its beginning and there are several issues that can be studied, such as centralized versus decentralized control, path planning for cooperative flights, agent reasoning for UAV tactical planning, safety assessments, reliability in automatic target reconnaissance by cameras, agent coordination mechanisms applied to UAV cooperation and the application itself. Different path planning algorithms were studied aiming to attain the most suitable to these kinds of operations, and the conclusions are presented. In addition, official documents of Search and Rescue operations are also studied in order to know the best practices already established for this kind of operations, and, finally, an overview of the coordination multi-agent theory is presented and evaluated to achieve the UAV coordination. This work proposes a model that combines path planning algorithms, search patterns and multi-agent coordination techniques to obtain a cooperative UAV model. The great goal for cooperative UAV is to achieve such performance that the performance of the group overcomes the sum of the individual performances isolatedly. Then, aiming to analyze the average percentage of objects detection, and the average search time, a simulator was developed and thousands of simulations were run. It was observed that, using the proposed model, two cooperative UAVs can perform a search operation 57% faster than two non cooperative UAVs, keeping the average probability of objects detection approaching at 100% and flying only 30% of the search space.
 
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Publishing Date
2013-07-31
 
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