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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.3.2016.tde-12072016-114838
Document
Author
Full name
Fernanda Cabrera Flores Valim
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Valera, Ticiane Sanches (President)
Fechine, Guilhermino José Macêdo
Yee, Márcio
Title in Portuguese
Comportamento reológico de compósitos reforçados com óxido de grafite em matriz de poli(metacrilato de metila).
Keywords in Portuguese
Grafeno
Nanocompósitos
Óxido de grafite
PMMA
Reologia
Abstract in Portuguese
Neste trabalho, foram obtidos compósitos poliméricos de Óxido de Grafite (GO) incorporado em Poli(metaclilato de metila) (PMMA). A obtenção do Óxido de Grafite foi realizada por dois diferentes métodos: método de Hummers modificado e método de Staudenmaier. Em seguida, foi ainda adicionada uma etapa secundária de tratamento térmico à 1000 ºC nos GOs obtidos a fim de expandir as lamelas de grafite e remover os grupos funcionais aderidos durante o ataque ácido do grafite. As cargas obtidas foram caracterizadas com o auxílio das técnicas de Difração de Raios-X (DRX), Espectroscopia Raman, Espectroscopia Vibracional no Infravermelho (FTIR), Análise Termogravimétrica (TGA), Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV), Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão (MET) e Microscopia de Força Atômica (AFM), constatando a formação do Óxido de Grafite por ambos os métodos, e ainda a expansão das folhas após o tratamento térmico. O estudo comparativo dos compósitos de matriz polimérica com 1, 3 e 5 % de concentração de GO antes do tratamento térmico e 1 e 3 % após o tratamento térmico foi realizado com o objetivo de entender a contribuição nas propriedades reológicas do polímero com a adição da carga de GO. Os compósitos poliméricos foram obtidos através de um misturador interno, variando-se o método de adição da carga na matriz polimérica via solvente ou via moinho - para estudar a melhor dispersão da carga na matriz. Os compósitos PMMA/GO foram caracterizados por Cromatografia de Permeação em Gel (GPC), Análise Termogravimétrica (TGA), Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC), Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV), Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão (MET); e por ensaios reológicos de Varredura de Deformação, Varredura de Tempo, e Cisalhamento Oscilatório de Pequenas Amplitudes (COPA). Os resultados reológicos apresentaram um aumento da viscosidade complexa tanto na Varredura de Tempo, quanto no COPA. De acordo com a metodologia adotada, ainda não foi possível verificar o aumento crescente da viscosidade complexa a baixas frequências. Este aumento de viscosidade indicaria que o Óxido de Grafite formou uma rede tridimensional, cuja percolação impede que as cadeias poliméricas relaxem completamente.
Title in English
Rheological behavior of graphite oxide reinforcement in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix composites.
Keywords in English
Graphene
Graphite oxide
Nanocomposites
PMMA. Rheology
Abstract in English
In this study, composites of graphite oxide (GO) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were obtained. Obtaining of graphite oxide was performed by two potential methods by literature: modified Hummers method and Staudenmaier method; Then, a secondary GOs obtained heat treatment step - at 1000° C - was added in order to expand the graphite flakes and remove functional groups attached during the acid attack of graphite. The reinforcement obtained by both methods were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), confirming the formation of Graphite Oxide by both methods, and also the expansion of the leaves after the heat treatment. Then, a comparative study of the polymer matrix composites with 1, 3 and 5 % concentration of oxides graphite before the heat treatment and 1 and 3 % after the heat treatment was performed in order to understand the contribution to the rheological properties of the polymer with the addition of GO reinforcement. The composites were obtained by internal mixer, varying the load adding method in the polymeric matrix - via mill and via solvent - to study the best dispersion of GO in the matrix. The samples were characterized by Gel Permeation Ghromatography (GPC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM); and rheological measurements of Deformation Scan, Time Sweep, and Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (SAOS). The rheological results showed an increase in complex viscosity at both Time Sweep, as in SAOS. However, it was not possible to verify the increase of complex viscosity at low frequencies, that would indicate that graphite oxide form a three-dimensional arrangement, which prevents the percolation of the polymer chains, letting them to relax completely.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-09-02
 
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