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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.27.2019.tde-19022021-125752
Document
Author
Full name
Priscilla Carbone
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Yagyu, Alice Kiyomi (President)
Aquino, Julio Roberto Groppa
Ribeiro, Carlos Eduardo
Title in Portuguese
O corpo esgotado: um estudo crítico sobre práticas de ensino corporal na formação do ator
Keywords in Portuguese
Formação do Artista Teatral
Michel Foucault
Treinamento Corporal
Abstract in Portuguese
Seguindo o traçado teórico-metodológico advindo do legado de Michel Foucault, a pesquisa aqui apresentada se dedica a investigar a inserção de práticas corporais na formação do artista teatral brasileiro. Para tanto, foram escolhidos, primeiramente, os seguintes conjuntos documentais: os programas curriculares e planos de ensino de professores da Escola de Arte Dramática (EAD), da qual foram estudados documentos pedagógicos de 1948 a 1990, e do curso de Bacharelado em Interpretação Teatral da Universidade de São Paulo (CAC), do qual analisaram-se os planos de ensino de 1968 a 2016; publicações da Revista Sala Preta, vinculada ao Programa de Pós Graduação em Artes Cênicas da ECA-USP, de 2001 a 2014; e a primeira proposta de ensino teatral formulada no país (em 1857, por João Caetano dos Santos). Observou-se que, a partir de 1960, o corpo do ator adquiriu um novo status nas práticas teatrais, recebendo mais tempo de estudo e mais técnicas para o seu aperfeiçoamento. Ao examinarmos os objetos, os conceitos, as teorias e os perfis de profissionais que constituíram o campo da formação corporal do ator, percebemos que a visualização corpórea adotada pelos preparadores corporais tomou emprestada a linguagem e o vocabulário advindos de uma ciência médica higienista do início do século XX. Ademais, a formalização das escolas de teatro no país coincide com a institucionalização da educação regular e profissional promovida pelas reformas do Ministro da Educação e Saúde Gustavo Capanema em 1937, quando o ensino da educação física se tornou obrigatório. A atividade física como meio de cura e prevenção dos males físicos e de aperfeiçoamento mental e moral começava a ser defendida por médicos, educadores e artistas em periódicos então postos em circulação. Assim, elegeu-se um segundo campo documental: a análise de 98 artigos da Revista Educação Physica, publicados entre 1937 e 1945, por meio da qual se deflagrou que a valorização do treinamento físico teria sido um acontecimento comum ao ensino do teatro e da educação física, os quais teriam se tornado um espaço privilegiado de absorção de cânones higienistas. Com o suporte de discursos médicos, visando à boa saúde, e psicológicos, liberando o corpo de um (suposto) aprisionamento mental para melhor expressar uma ideia ou uma (suposta) verdade sobre si mesmo, o ator passou a ser alvo de uma série de práticas disciplinares, endereçadas cada vez mais ao governo de seu corpo como artista e como indivíduo. Os efeitos de tais acontecimentos seriam encontrados nos dias de hoje sob a constituição idealizada de um corpo mais consciente, livre, criativo, inteligente, expressivo e, portanto, acima da média, o que definirá novos regimes de veridicção do ser ator, desconhecidos por nossos antepassados.
Title in English
The depleted body: a critical study of physical practices in the actor's training
Keywords in English
Actor Training
Michel Foucault
Physical Training
Abstract in English
Following the theoretical-methodological track emerging from Michel Foucault's legacy, this research is dedicated to the insertion of physical practices in the training of Brazilian theatre performers. For this purpose, there have been firstly chosen following sets of documents: the course curricula and the syllabi by docents of the Escola de Arte Dramática (EAD), of which paedagogical documents from 1948 to 1990 have been studied, and of the Bachelor in Theatre Acting Degree Programme of the University of São Paulo (CAC), of which the syllabi from 1968 to 2016 have been analysed (the choice of both schools is due to the importance granted to them by theatre history, and to the fact that both share the same building at the campus of the University); the articles published in Revista Sala Preta, linked to the Theatre Postgraduate Programme of the Escola de Comunicações e Artes (ECA-USP), from 2001 to 2014; and the first theatre teaching proposal formulated in Brazil (in 1857 by João Caetano dos Santos). It has been observed that, from 1960 on, the actor's body has achieved a new status in theatrical practices, being dedicated more study time and more techniques for its improvement. By examining the objects, the concepts, the theories and the profiles of professionals constituting the field of the actor's physical training, it was noticed that the body image adopted by body preparation specialists has borrowed the language and the vocabulary from the hygienist medical science of the early 20th century. Moreover, the formalisation of theatre schools in Brazil coincides with the establishment of regular and professional education promoted by Minister of Health and Education Gustavo Capanema in 1937, when Physical Education becomes a mandatory school subject. The encouragement to physical activity as a way of healing and prevention against body's illnesses and of mental and moral improvement starts to be defended by doctors, educators and artists in newly published journals. Thereby, another set of documents was chosen: the analysis of 98 articles published in Revista Educação Physica between 1937 and 1945, through which it became evident that the valuation of physical training was a common occurrence to theatre and physical education teaching programmes, which would have both become a privileged field of absortion of hygienistic canons. Under the support of the medical discourse, aiming at good health, and of the psychological discourse, according to which the body would be freed from a (supposed) mental imprisonment in order to improve the expression of an idea or of a (supposed) truth about itself, the actors have become the target of several disciplinary practices which aimed more and more at the government of their bodies, both as artists and as individuals. The effects of those events would be found nowadays under the idealistic constitution of a more conscious, freer, more creative, more expressive body, and thus, above average, which will define new parameters of being an actor that were unknown to our ancestors.
 
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Publishing Date
2021-02-19
 
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