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Master's Dissertation
Full name
Luan Pereira da Macena
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Bauru, 2021
Assis, Gerson Francisco de (President)
Lippe, Eliana Mara Oliveira
Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho Sales
Prestes, Marcelo Pires
Title in English
Long-term of a diet rich in saturated fats induced obesity, insulin resistance and microstructural alterations of the femurs in rat
Keywords in English
Insulin Resistance
X-Ray microtomography
Abstract in English
In rodents and humans, dietary intake of large amounts of fat (HFD) has adverse effects on insulin sensitivity and the development of glucose intolerance and diabetes due to the type of fat consumed, the amount and time of consumption. Despite the indisputable role of obesity and insulin resistance over bone tissue, it is still not really known how much they interfere in the process of bone degradation, and what their relation is in the progression of structural changes. The purpose of the current work was to evaluate changes in body mass, insulin resistance and structural changes in rat femurs that received a high-fat diet (HFD). 6-week-old Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the group that consumed a standard diet (SD, n=16) and the group that received high fat (HFD, n=16). After 120 days of the diet, the animals' femurs were subjected to X-ray microtomography and the condylar metaphyseal region evaluated in the CTAn program (SkyScan, Bruker). The data were submitted to the evaluation of the Gaussian distribution and homogeneity of variances for subsequent contrast of the averages by the t or Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). HFD animals showed greater body mass compared to SD (926g vs. 670g, p<0.001) and insulin resistance with glucose tolerance (greater area on the curve in HFD), insulin tolerance (longer glucose decay time in DH). The X-ray microtomographic evaluation of the total volume (TV) of the evaluated metaphyseal region was similar between groups (p=0.3933), nevertheless the total volume of cortical was higher in HFD compared to SD (47.8mm3 vs. 33.61mm3, respectively, p<0.0001) and the TV of trabecular region was minor (73.1mm3 vs. 63.4mm3, respectively, p=0.0181), leading to the highest percentage of the cortical region (43.2% vs 30, 8%, respectively, p<0.0001). In the trabecular region, bone volume (BV) and bone surface (BS) were smaller in HFD than in SD (BV of mm3 18.6mm3 vs. 5.9mm3 p<0.0001) and BS of 178.5mm vs 314mm, respectively, 0=0.0021). Based on the results, the long-term consumption of a diet rich in saturated fat induce to obesity and insulin resistance which lead to structural changes in rat femurs similar to osteoporosis.
Title in Portuguese
Em longo prazo, dieta rica em gordura saturada induz obesidade, resistência à insulina e alterações macro e microestruturais em fêmures de ratos
Keywords in Portuguese
Microtomografia por Raio-X
Resistência à Insulina
Abstract in Portuguese
Em roedores e humanos, a ingestão dietética de grandes quantidades de gordura (HFD) tem efeitos adversos na sensibilidade à insulina e no desenvolvimento de intolerância à glicose e diabetes devido ao tipo de gordura consumida, a quantidade e o tempo de consumo. Apesar do indiscutível papel da obesidade e resistência à insulina sobre o tecido ósseo, ainda não se sabe realmente o grau de interferência delas no processo de degradação óssea, e qual a relação destas na progressão de alterações estruturais. O proposto do atual trabalho foi avaliar as alterações na massa corporal, quadro de resistência à insulina e alterações estruturais nos fêmures de rato que receberam uma dieta rica em gordura (HFD). Ratos Wistar de 6 semanas de idade foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo consumiram dieta padrão (SD, n=16) e o grupo que recebeu hiperlipídica (HFD, n=16). Após 120 dias da dieta, os fêmures dos animais foram submetidos a microtomografia computadorizada e a região metafisária condilar (RMc) avaliados no programa CTAn (SkayScan, Bruker). Os dados foram submetidos a avaliação da distribuição gaussiana e homogeneidade das variâncias para subsequente contraste das medias pelo teste t ou Mann-Whitney (p<0.05). Os animais HFD apresentaram maior massa corporal comparado aos SD (926g vs. 670 g, p<0.001) e quadro de resistência à insulina com tolerância à glicose (maior área sobre a curva nos HFD), tolerância à insulina (maior tempo de decaimento da glicose nos DH). Pela avaliação microtomográfica volume total (TV) da região metafisária avaliada foi similar entre os grupos (p=0,3933), porém o TV da cortical foi maior nos HFD comparado aos SD (47,8mm3 vs. 33.61mm3, respectivamente, p<0,0001) e a da região trabecular menor (73,1mm3 vs. 63,4mm3, respectivamente, p=0,0181), levando ao maior percentual da região cortical (43.2% vs 30,8%, respectivamente, p<0,0001). Na região trabecular, o volume ósseo (BV) e a superfície óssea (BS) foi menor nos HFD que nos SD (BV de mm3 18,6mm3 vs. 5.9mm3 p<0,0001)e BS de 178.5mm vs 314mm, respectivamente, 0=0,0021). Com base nos resultados o consumo em longo prazo de uma dieta rica em gordura saturada leva a obesidade e o quadro à resistência à insulina os quais levam a alterações estruturais nos fêmures de rato similar ao quadro de osteoporose.
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