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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.25.2019.tde-05102021-115649
Document
Author
Full name
Ever Elias Mena Laura
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Bauru, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Faria, Flavio Augusto Cardoso de
Gennaro, Gabriela
Martins, Renato
Title in English
Impact of metformin on periodontal response to orthodontic forces in type 1 and 2 diabetic rats
Keywords in English
Metformin
Orthodontic tooth movement
Periodontium
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Abstract in English
Objectives: We studied the periodontal response to orthodontic forces in type 1 diabetic rats (T1D) treated with insulin and metformin and type 2 diabetic rats (T2D) treated exclusively with metformin (MET). Materials and methods: In article 1, T1D was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ), whereas in article 2, T2D was induced by 90 days of high fat diet (HFD) with a single and low dose administration of STZ. In both articles 1 and 2 as soon as diabetes was induced in rats, an orthodontic appliance was installed to move the right upper first molar mesially for periods of 0, 3, 7, and 14 days. Samples were analyzed by micro-CT histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry for TRAP + cells. Results: Diabetic induction with STZ on the one hand, and HDF plus STZ on the other resulted in pathognomonic signs of T1D (hyperglycemia) and T2D (increase in body mass, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia), respectively. The addition of MET decreased blood glucose to values close to NG and better than insulin alone in T1D. In T2D, MET significantly reduced blood glucose, insulin tolerance and glucose tolerance. During orthodontic movement (OTM), T1D and T2D led to greater mesial movement, mesial inclination, mesial rotation (mesioversion), periodontal ligament spacing associated to a larger number of TRAP+ cells, and bone resorption surfaces (ORS) which were significantly reduced by MET on T2D and MET added to insulin on T1D. T2D presented maxillary osteoporosis or reduced BV / TV and BA / TA before OTM, but in T1D this occurred during OTM, however these effects were counteracted by MET. Yet, a different pattern of OTM occurs in T1D and T2D due to different bone density, and extrusion versus intrusion presented in T1D and T2D, respectively. Conclusion: The addition of metformin to insulin in T1D or single administration in T2D reduces the adverse effects on periodontal tissues during orthodontic movement in type 1 and 2 diabetic rats.
Title in Portuguese
Impacto da metformina na resposta periodontal à forças ortodônticas em ratos diabéticos tipo 1 e 2
Keywords in Portuguese
Diabetes tipo 1
Diabetes tipo 2
Metformina
Movimento dentário ortodôntico
Periodonto
Abstract in Portuguese
Objetivos: Nós estudamos a resposta periodontal às forças ortodônticas em ratos diabéticos tipo 1 (T1D) tratados com metformina (MET) adicionada à insulina, e ratos diabéticos tipo 2 (T2D) tratados exclusivamente com metformina. Materiais e métodos: No artigo 1 a T1D foi induzida por injeção única de estreptozotocina (STZ), enquanto que no artigo 2 a T2D foi induzida por alimentação rica em gordura (HFD) por 90 dias e administração de dose única e baixa de STZ. Em ambos artigos 1 e 2 assim que a diabetes foi induzida nos ratos, um aparelho ortodóntico foi instalado para movimentar o primeiro molar superior direito mesialmente por períodos de 0, 3, 7, e 14 dias. As amostras foram analisadas por micro-CT histomorfometria e imunohistoquímica para células TRAP+. Resultados: A indução diabética, com STZ por um lado, e HDF mais STZ por outro, resultou em signos patognomônicos da T1D (hiperglicemia) e T2D (aumento da massa corporal, resistência insulina, intolerância à glicose e hiperglicemia), respectivamente. A adição de MET diminuiu a glicemia a valores próximos do NG e melhor do que só insulina na T1D. Na T2D a MET reduziu significantemente a glicemia, tolerância à insulina e tolerância à glicose. Durante o movimento ortodôntico (MO), T1D e T2D levaram a maior movimento mesial, inclinação mesial, rotação mesial (mesioversão), espaçamento do ligamento periodontal associado a maior numero de células TRAP+ e superfícies de reabsorção óssea (ORS) os quais foram significantemente reduzidos pela MET na T2D e a adição de MET à insulina na T1D. A T2D apresentou osteoporose maxilar ou BV/TV e BA/TA reduzido antes do MO, mas no T1D, isso ocorreu durante o MO, porem esses efeitos foram contrariados pela MET. Ainda um diferente padrão de MO ocorre na T1D e T2D pela diferente densidade óssea, e extrusão versus a intrusão apresentadas na T1D e T2D, respectivamente. Conclusão: A adição de metformina à insulina na T1D ou administração única na T2D reduzem os efeitos adversos no periodonto durante o movimento ortodôntico em ratos diabéticos tipo 1 e 2.
 
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Release Date
2023-10-05
Publishing Date
2021-10-05
 
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