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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.23.2018.tde-04042018-103742
Document
Author
Full name
Janaina Braga Medina
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Silva, Paulo Henrique Braz da (President)
Eduardo, Fernanda de Paula
Gallottini, Marina Helena Cury
Oliveira, Fabiana Martins e Martins de
Title in Portuguese
Sangramento pós-exodôntico em pacientes em fila de transplante hepático: análise retrospectiva
Keywords in Portuguese
Cirrose hepática
Exodontia
Sangramento
Transplante de fígado
Abstract in Portuguese
A cirrose hepática é a consequência de todas as doenças crônicas, de longo prazo, que acometem o fígado e é caracterizada a insuficiência hepática (IH) e a hipertensão portal (HP). As coagulopatias vistas em pacientes cirróticos são dependentes de diversos mecanismos, que envolvem tanto a IH como a HP, e que comprometem as funções fisiológicas rotineiras do fígado, entre elas a síntese de todos os fatores de coagulação, com exceção do fator de von Willebrand. Todos os trabalhos publicados até hoje em odontologia não puderam associar os dois testes geralmente utilizados no pré-operatório desses pacientes, o INR e a contagem de plaquetas, com a presença de eventos hemorrágicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de sangramento intra e pós-operatório de pacientes cirróticos, submetidos a exodontias, e verificar se existe associação entre parâmetros laboratoriais (plaquetas, hemoglobina, INR, TTPa, ureia, creatinina) e clínicos (complicações da cirrose, estágio da doença, MELD, tipo de exodontia, tempo de cirurgia, número de dentes extraídos). Foi realizado um estudo observacional retrospectivo analítico, de corte transversal de pacientes cirróticos em fila de transplante do Centro de Atendimento a Pacientes Especiais (CAPE) da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo (FOUSP). Foram transferidos para o EpiInfo, originando um banco de dados, as informações constantes do prontuário de 224 pacientes. Em 99 pacientes foram executados 190 atendimentos que resultaram em 333 dentes extraídos. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (75,44%), com idade média de 51,27 anos e escolaridade de nível fundamental (23,56%). A maior causa de cirrose foi a hepatite C (40,18%), e as complicações da cirrose mais comuns foram a circulação colateral (66,80%), encefalopatia hepática (56,30%) e ascite (64,20%). Em 190 hemogramas foi identificada plaquetopenia (95,80%); anemia, em 129 (67,90%) e alterações da série branca em 110 (57,80%). A média do INR foi de 1,45 (mínimo 1,03 e máximo 2,71) e a de plaquetas 76.380 (mínimo 16.000 e máximo de 216.000). Apenas 12 pacientes apresentaram eventos hemorrágicos no intra-operatório e 12 no pós-operatório. A única associação positiva foi entre a contagem de plaquetas e os eventos hemorrágicos intra-operatórios (p=0,26; teste de Mann Whitney, confirmada a associação através de análise de regressão linear). Todos os eventos foram controlados com medidas locais. Pacientes cirróticos em fila de transplante de fígado apresentam poucos eventos relacionados com sangramento e todos de pouca severidade. Existe uma chance maior de sangramento intra-operatório à medida que a contagem de plaquetas diminui, mas o sangramento é controlado com medidas locais simples. Os eventos hemorrágicos pós-operatórios não puderam ser associados com nenhuma das variáveis, mas nenhum paciente necessitou de transfusão e a resolução do quadro foi espontânea.
Title in English
Post-extraction bleeding in liver transplant waiting list patients: a retrospective analysis
Keywords in English
Bleeding
Dental extraction
Liver cirrhosis
Liver transplant
Abstract in English
Hepatic cirrhosis is the result of all long-term chronic diseases, which can compromise the liver, and is characterised by hepatic insufficiency (HI) and portal hypertension (PH). The coagulopathies seen in cirrhotic patients depend on several mechanisms involving both HI and PH, which impairs the routine physiological functions of the liver, such as synthesis of all coagulation factors, except the von Willebrand factor. All dental studies published until today could not associate the two tests commonly used prior to tooth extraction in these patients, namely, INR and platelets count, for presence of haemorrhagic events. The objective of this work was to assess the presence of intra- and post-operative bleeding in cirrhotic patients undergoing tooth extraction and to verify whether there exists an association between laboratory (i.e. platelets, haemoglobins, INR, TTPa, urea, creatinine) and clinical parameters (i.e. cirrhosis complications, disease stage, MELD score, type of tooth extraction, surgery time, number of teeth extracted). This is a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study of cirrhotic patients who were on the liver transplant waiting list at the Healthcare Centre for Special Patients (CAPE) of the University of São Paulo Faculty of Dentistry (FOUSP). Data were obtained from the medical records of 224 patients and the Epi Info software was used to generate a database. A total of 190 visits were performed for 99 patients, resulting in 333 teeth extracted. The majority of the patients were male (75.44%) with mean age of 51.27 years old and elementary education level (23.56%). The greatest cause was hepatitis C (40.18%) and the most common cirrhosis complications were collateral circulation (66.80%), hepatic encephalopathy (56.30%) and ascite (64.20%). Plateletopenia (95.80%) was identified in 190 blood counts, anaemia (67.90%) in 129, and white blood cell changes in 110 (57.80%). The mean scores for INR was 1.45 (minimum 1.03 and maximum 2.71) and for platelets was 76,380 (minimum 16,000 and maximum 216,000). Only 12 patients presented haemorrhagic events during surgery and 12 after it. The only positive association was found between platelet counts and intra-operative haemorrhagic events (P = 0.26; Mann Whitney's test, confirmed with linear regression analysis). All the bleeding events were controlled with local measures. Cirrhotic patients who were on the liver transplant waiting list had a few bleeding events, all with little severity. Intra-operative haemorrhagic events are more likely to occur when the platelet count is low, but bleeding can be handled with simple local measures. Post-operative haemorrhagic events could not be associated with any variable, but no patient needed blood transfusion as the clinical picture improved spontaneously.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-04-17
 
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