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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.23.2010.tde-18082010-124119
Document
Author
Full name
Caroline Lumi Miyazaki
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Rodrigues Filho, Leonardo Eloy (President)
Matos, Jivaldo do Rosario
Miranda Junior, Walter Gomes
Rodrigues, Flávia Pires
Santana, Ivone Lima
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização térmica, grau de conversão, resistência à flexão e dureza de compósitos comerciais tratados termicamente
Keywords in Portuguese
Análise Térmica
Dureza Knoop
Grau de Conversão
Resinas Compostas
Resistência à Flexão
Abstract in Portuguese
Visando otimizar as propriedades químicas e mecânicas de compósitos de uso direto aplicados na forma indireta, associados a tratamentos térmicos experimentais (TT), torna-se necessária uma caracterização térmica que permita a determinação de uma temperatura de TT segura (abaixo da temperatura de início de perda de massa). Assim, a primeira etapa deste estudo consistiu em caracterizar termicamente dez compósitos comerciais (Z100, Filtek Z250, Z350 e Supreme XT- 3M ESPE, Esthet-X e TPH Spectrum Dentsply, Charisma Heraeus Kulzer, Tetric Ceram Ivoclar Vivadent, Herculite XRV e Point 4 - Kerr), fotoativados pelo método contínuo (C) e pulse-delay (PD) (20 J.cm-2), por termogravimetria (TG) (n=1) e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC) (n=3). Foram escolhidas duas temperaturas de TT: 100 e 170°C, aplicadas por 10 min, 24h após a fotoativação. A partir disto, avaliaram-se: 1) o grau de conversão (GC), por espectroscopia FT-Raman (n=3); 2) a resistência à flexão em três pontos (RF) (n=10); e 3) a dureza Knoop (KHN) para as faces topo e base (n=3) de quatro destes compósitos (Filtek Z250 e Supreme XT, Esthet-X e Point 4), após diferentes condições: imediatamente, 1h, 6h e 24h após a fotoativação e 24h após fotoativação seguida de TT a 100 ou 170°C. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey (nível de significância de 5%). Quanto ao GC (%), houve significância estatística para o fator material (p=0,000): Point 4 (68,42) > Z250 (63,05) = Esthet-X (61,69) > Supreme (54,27); condição (p=0,000): TT170 (73,20) = TT100 (73,58) > 24h (62,60) = 6h (60,18) > 1h (55,10) = imediato (53,66); e ativação (p=0,006): C (62,97) > PD (60,75). Também foram significantes as interações material × condição (p=0,007) e material × condição × ativação (p=0,013). Para a RF (MPa), foram encontradas significâncias estatísticas para os fatores material (p=0,000): Z250 (165,48) > Supreme (153,96) > Point 4 (131,30) = Esthet-X (128,06); e condição (p=0,000): TT170 (194,56) > TT100 (182,91) > 24h (150,88) > 6h (131,79) > 1h (111,77) > imediato (96,30); assim como para as interações: ativação × condição (p=0,000), material × condição (p=0,000) e material × ativação × condição (p=0,000). Para a dureza, foram encontradas significâncias estatísticas para os fatores: materialativação (p=0,000): Supreme C (82,46) > Supreme PD (80,29) = Z250 C (77,46) > Z250 PD (74,30) > Esthet-X C (69,17) > Esthet-X PD (65,67) > Point 4 C (57,21) = Point 4 PD (56,71); condição (p=0,000): TT170 (81,35) > TT100 (73,72) > 24h (70,36) > 6h (67,92) > 1h (64,99) > imediato (64,12) e face (p=0,000): topo (71,40) > base (69,40); assim como para as interações: material-ativação × face (p=0,011), material-ativação × condição (p=0,000) e face × condição (p=0,000). A partir dos resultados obtidos, pôde-se concluir que os TTs experimentais propostos foram capazes de aumentar as propriedades estudadas, sendo, de maneira geral, os resultados obtidos com 170°C melhores do que os com 100°C, e ambos melhores do que as demais condições.
Title in English
Thermal characterization, degree of conversion, flexural strength and Knoop hardness of heat treated commercial composites
Keywords in English
Composite Resins
Degree of Conversion
Flexural Strength
Knoop Hardness
Thermal Analysis
Abstract in English
Aiming to optimize chemical and mechanical properties of direct composites applied in an indirect way, with an association to experimental heat treatments (TT), it is necessary a thermal characterization, in a way to determine a safe temperature for the TT (below the significant mass loss temperature). Thus, the first step of this study was to perform the thermal characterization of ten commercial composites (Z100, Filtek Z250, Z350 and Supreme XT 3M-ESPE, Esthet-X and TPH Spectrum Dentsply, Charisma Heraeus Kulzer, Tetric Ceram Ivoclar Vivadent, Herculite XRV and Point 4 - Kerr) photoactivated by continuous (C) and pulse-delay (PD) methods (20 J.cm-2), by thermogravimetry (TG) (n=1) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (n=3). After that, two temperatures were chosen for the TT: 100 and 170°C, which were applied for 10 min, 24h after photoactivation. Thus, some properties were evaluated for four composites (Filtek Z250 and Supreme XT, Esthet- X and Point 4): 1) degree of conversion (GC) by FT-Raman spectroscopy (n=3); 2) three-point bending test (RF) (n=10); and 3) Knoop hardness (KHN) for top and bottom surfaces (n=3). The conditions were: immediately, 1h, 6h and 24h after photoactivation and 24h after photoactivation followed by TT at 100 or 170°C. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukeys test (level of significance of 5%). In relation to GC (%), there were statistical significance for the factors material (p=0.000): Point 4 (68.42) > Z250 (63.05) = Esthet-X (61.69) > Supreme (54.27); condition (p=0.000): TT170 (73.20) = TT100 (73.58) > 24h (62.60) = 6h (60.18) > 1h (55.10) = immediately (53.66); and activation (p=0.006): C (62.97) > PD (60.75); and for the interactions: material × condition (p=0.007) and material × condition × activation (p=0.013). For RF (MPa), statistical significance were found for the factors material (p=0.000): Z250 (165.48) > Supreme (153.96) > Point 4 (131.30) = Esthet-X (128.06); and condition (p=0.000): TT170 (194.56) > TT100 (182.91) > 24h (150.88) > 6h (131.79) > 1h (111.77) > immediately (96.30); and also for the interactions: activation × condition (p=0.000), material × condition (p=0.000) and material × activation × condition (p=0.000). For KHN, statistical significance were found for the factors material-activation (p=0.000): Supreme C (82.46) > Supreme PD (80.29) = Z250 C (77.46) > Z250 PD (74.30) > Esthet-X C (69.17) > Esthet-X PD (65.67) > Point 4 C (57.21) = Point 4 PD (56.71); condition (p=0.000): TT170 (81.35) > TT100 (73.72) > 24h (70.36) > 6h (67.92) > 1h (64.99) > immediately (64.12), and face (p=0.000): top (71.40) > bottom (69.40); as for the interactions: material-activation × face (p=0.011), material-activation × condition (p=0.000) and face × condition (p=0.000). By the results, it could be concluded that both proposed experimental TTs were capable of increasing the studied properties, with, in a general way, 170°C generating better mechanical properties than 100°C, and both better than the other conditions.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-08-24
 
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