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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.21.2007.tde-19072007-110620
Document
Author
Full name
Caio Vinicius Zecchin Cipro
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2007
Supervisor
Committee
Montone, Rosalinda Carmela (President)
Bicego, Marcia Caruso
Miranda Filho, Kleber Campos
Title in Portuguese
Ocorrência de compostos organoclorados em Euphausia superba e em ovos gorados de pingüins do gênero Pygoscelis
Keywords in Portuguese
Antártida.
krill
Organoclorados
PCBs
pesticidas
pingüins
Abstract in Portuguese
Bifenilos policlorados (PCBs) e pesticidas organoclorados são compostos que não ocorrem naturalmente no ambiente e não são facilmente degradados química ou microbiologicamente. Seu estudo no ambiente é importante devido à sua persistência, toxicidade, lipossolubilidade e conseqüente biomagnificação. Por isso, representam a maioria dos poluentes orgânicos persistentes (POPs) considerados prioritários pela UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) e banidos ou restritos pela Convenção de Estocolmo, de maio de 2001. Tais poluentes podem ser facilmente emitidos para a atmosfera, atingindo áreas remotas como a Antártida, integrando um processo cíclico de contaminação conhecido como destilação global. No presente trabalho otimizou-se uma metodologia analítica capaz de detectá-los em ovos gorados de pingüins e indivíduos de krill coletados na Baía do Almirantado, Ilha Rei Jorge, Antártida. Tal metodologia foi avaliada e enquadrou-se em critérios internacionais de controle de qualidade. Os compostos mais presentes foram, de um modo geral, os PCBs, DDTs e o HCB e a ocorrência pareceu ser espécie-específica dentro do gênero Pygoscelis. Em todos os casos, o teor dos compostos não foi superior ao de aves árticas em nível trófico semelhante. A análise do krill permitiu estimar a biomagnificação dos compostos encontrados nos ovos, cuja única fonte de contaminação é a transferência fêmea-filhote.
Title in English
Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in Euphasia superba and uhatched eggs of Pygoscelis genus penguins
Keywords in English
Antarctica.
krill
Organochlorine
PBCs
penguins
pesticides
Abstract in English
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides are compounds that do not occur naturally in the environment and are not easily degraded by chemical or microbiological action. Their study in the environment is important due to persistence, toxicity, liposolubility and consequent biomagnification. For these reasons, they represent the majority of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), considered to have priority by the UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) and banished and/or restricted by the Stockholm Convention of May, 2001. Such pollutants can be easily ejected into the atmosphere and reach areas as remote as Antarctica, integrating a cyclical contamination process known as ?global distillation?. In the present work an analytical methodology capable of detecting such compounds in unhatched penguin eggs and whole krill was optimized. The samples were collected in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. This methodology was evaluated and fitted international quality control criteria. The compounds found in higher levels were, in most of the samples, the PCBs, DDTs and HCB and the occurrence seemed to be species-specific for the Pygoscelis genus. In all of the cases, the levels found were not higher than the ones in arctic birds in a similar trophic level.The krill samples analysis made it possible to estimate the biomagnification of the compounds found in eggs, whose only source of contamination is the female-offspring transfer.
 
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Publishing Date
2007-09-12
 
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