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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.21.2006.tde-27112006-163708
Document
Author
Full name
Hilda Caramantin Soriano
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Perez, Luz Amelia Vega (President)
Braga, Francisco Manoel de Souza
Castro, Paula Maria Gênova de
Katsuragawa, Mario
Silva, Antonio Olinto Avila da
Title in Portuguese
"Dinâmica populacional de Scomber japonicus peruanus (Jordán & Hubb, 1925) (Teleostomi: Scombridae) no litoral peruano, no período de 1990 a 2003"
Keywords in Portuguese
crescimento
El Niño e La Niña
estoque
Scomber japonicus peruanus
taxas de mortalidade
Abstract in Portuguese
A dinâmica populacional de Scomber japonicus peruanus (cavalinha) foi estudada com base nos dados de captura da pesca comercial obtidos mensalmente, de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 2003, no litoral peruano (3°23’S-18°20’S e 72°W-84°W), dentro do projeto “Seguimento de los recursos pelágicos en el litoral peruano” que vem sendo desenvolvido no Instituto del Mar del Perú – IMARPE. Nesse período, a Temperatura Superficial do Mar foi obtida mensalmente em cada uma das áreas de coleta. A análise dos parâmetros de crescimento e as taxas de mortalidade, bem como o padrão de recrutamento da cavalinha, foram feitos a partir dos dados da pesca comercial correspondente aos anos de 1996 a 2003, enquanto na avaliação do estoque utilizaram-se os do período de 1993 a 2003. A Temperatura Superficial do Mar variou de 13,60°C (2001) a 29,34°C (1998), sendo os valores mínimos encontrados em 1996 e 1999-2001 e máximos em 1992-1993 e 1997-1998. Os desembarques da espécie Scomber japonicus peruanus entre 1990 e 2003 variaram de 8.119 t a 387.659 t, sendo o valor médio 122.513 t. As médias dos desembarques mensais oscilaram entre 3.274 t e 16.853 t, com maiores valores registrados nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 1998, bem como em janeiro e março de 1999. As anomalias positivas máximas dos desembarques, que variaram de 134.985 t a 345.137 t, foram obtidas no período de 1997-1999 e em 2001, enquanto elevadas anomalias negativas nos anos de 1992 (-34.402 t) e 1993 (-32.894 t). Os resultados mostraram que no período de 1993-2003 o comprimento médio furcal da cavalinha diminuiu de 30,50 cm para 26,70 cm, que o comprimento furcal de primeira captura (Cf50) foi 26,40 cm e que o recrutamento ocorreu o ano todo, principalmente, no verão. xiii No período compreendido entre 1996 e 2003, o estudo do crescimento e mortalidade da cavalinha evidenciou que os valores do comprimento assintótico (Cf∞) e os da taxa de crescimento (K), obtidos pelo ELEFAN I e os registrados pelo método de Ford- Walford, foram 42,40 cm e 0,40 ano–1, respectivamente. O comprimento igual a zero (to) foi –0,37 ano–1 e a amplitude de oscilação (C) 0,40, enquanto os valores de Winter Point (Wp) 0,60 e o do índice de performance (φ) 2,86. A taxa média de mortalidade total (Z) obtida pela análise da curva de captura linearizada e pelo método de Beverton & Holt, foi 2,30 ano–1; a taxa de mortalidade por pesca (F) 1,97 ano–1 e a taxa de explotação 0,86 ano–1. A taxa anual de mortalidade natural (M) estimada pelo método de Rikhter & Efanov e pela equação de Pauly foi 0,50 ano–1. A longevidade da cavalinha foi 7,60 anos. A análise de coorte de comprimento e a aplicação dos modelos de rendimento por recruta de Beverton & Holt e o preditivo de Thompson & Bell, revelaram que o estoque de Scomber japonicus peruanus encontra-se sobre-explotado e próximo da capacidade máxima.
Title in English
The population dynamics of the scomber japonicus peruanus (Jordan & Hubb, 1925) (Teleostomi: Scombridae) off the Peru Coast, fram 1990 to 2003
Keywords in English
El Niño and La Niña
growth
mortality rates
Scomber japonicus peruanus
stock
Abstract in English
The population dynamics of the Scomber japonicus peruanus (Chub mackerel) was studied based on commercial fishing data obtained monthly from January 1999 to December 2003 off the Peru coast (3°23’S-18°20’S e 72°W-84°W), within the “Tracking of pelagic resources off the Peru coast” project which is being carried out at the Instituto del Mar del Peru – IMARPE. During this period, Sea Surface Temperature data was obtained monthly I n each one of the sampling areas. The analysis of the growth parameters, mortality rates, as well as the recruitment pattern of the Chub mackerel was obtained from commercial fishing data from 1996 to 2003. For stock assessment the time range was from 1993 to 2003. Sea Surface Temperature varied from 13.60°C (2001) to 29.34°C (1998) with minimum values being found in 1996 and 1999-2001 and maximum values in 1992-1993 and 1997-1998. The landing of the Scomber japonicus peruanus species between 1990 and 2003 varied from 8.119 t to 387.659 t, with an average of 122.513 t. The average of the monthly landings varied between 3.274 t and 16.853 t, with higher values registered on November and December 1998 as well as January and March 1999. The maximum positive anomalies of the landings, which varied from 134.985 to 345.137 t, were obtained in 1997 -1999 and in 2001. On the other hand, high negative anomalies were obtained in 1992 (-34.402 t) and 1993 (-32.894 t). The results show that from 1993 to 2003 the mean fork length of the Chub mackerel decreased from 30,50 cm to 26,70 cm, the fork length of the first catch (Cf50) was 26,40 and that recruitment occurred all year, especially during the summer. Between 1996 and 2003, the growth and mortality study of the Chub mackerel showed that the asymptotic body length (Cf∞) and the growth rate values (K) obtained by ELEFAN I and the ones xv registered by the Ford-Walford method were 42.40 cm and 0.40 cm year–1, respectively. The t-zero (length is 0) was –0.37 year–1 and the amplitude (C) 0.40. The Winter Point (Wp) value was 0.60 and the performance index (φ) 2.86. The mean total mortality rate (Z), obtained by analyzing the linearized catch curve and by the Beverton and Holt method, was 2.30 year–1. The rate of fishing mortality (F) was 1.97 year–1 and the exploitation rate 0.86 year–1. The annual rate of natural mortality (M) estimated by the Rikter and Efanov method and by the Pauly equation was 0.50 year–1. The longevity of the Chub mackerel was 7.60 years. The length based cohort analysis and the application of Beverton and Holt's yield per recruit models as well as Thompson and Bell's predictive model, revealed that the Scomber japonicus peruanus is over exploited and nearing it's maximum capacity.
 
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Publishing Date
2006-12-14
 
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