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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.2.2017.tde-18052017-132452
Document
Author
Full name
Caroline Braun
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Moraes, Maurício Zanoide de (President)
Costa, Helena Regina Lobo da
Malan, Diogo Rudge
Title in Portuguese
Da imputação por crimes ambientais e o direito de defesa da pessoa jurídica
Keywords in Portuguese
Crime ambiental
Direito de defesa
Responsabilidade penal
Abstract in Portuguese
O presente trabalho teve por escopo a análise da imputação por crimes ambientais no processo penal em face da pessoa jurídica à luz do direito de defesa, considerando a ausência de disciplina na Lei 9.605/98 e a remissão legal genérica aos Códigos Penal e de Processo Penal. Optou-se pela exposição do tema no presente estudo em duas partes distintas, sob a perspectiva do direito penal (capítulos 1 e 2) e do direito processual penal (capítulos 3 e 4). A escolha justificou-se em virtude da relação mantida entre os dois ramos, que mantêm uma mútua complementariedade funcional e, concomitantemente, guardam espaços de tensão. A partir desta constatação, analisou-se a expansão do direito penal sob a perspectiva da sociedade do risco. Ainda, verificou-se de que forma a Lei 9.605/98 incorporou estas tendências de expansão, com estudo do bem jurídico, dos crimes de perigo abstrato e do emprego da técnica de assessoriedade administrativa. Delimitada a influência da sociedade do risco sob a dogmática penal ambiental, estudou-se a responsabilidade penal das pessoas jurídicas, para que se entendesse de que forma foi inserida no ordenamento. A partir da abordagem dos requisitos estabelecidos para esta responsabilidade penal, indicaram-se as dificuldades de adequação à pessoa jurídica dos conceitos tradicionais de ação e culpa, construídos tradicionalmente sob uma perspectiva individual. Verificou-se que os entraves do processo de responsabilização resultam em denúncias genéricas, formuladas em afronta ao artigo 41 do Código de Processo Penal. Ainda, viu-se que novas análises da responsabilidade penal coletiva partem da superação de alguns padrões ontológicos da teoria do delito e adotem uma perspectiva normativa. As conclusões obtidas na primeira parte foram aplicadas sobre a segunda parte do trabalho, a partir da análise do direito de defesa e da imputação. Foi visto ser garantido à pessoa jurídica o direito à ampla defesa em toda sua extensão. Dentre os problemas processuais manifestados pela sujeição passiva do ente coletivo, analisaram-se os mais relevantes sob a perspectiva do direito à ampla defesa: denúncia, citação, aplicação dos institutos da transação penal e suspensão condicional do processo, interrogatório, aplicação de pena e cabimento de ações impugnativas autônomas.
Title in English
The imputation of environmental crimes and the right to defense of legal entities.
Keywords in English
Criminal liability of legal entities
Environmental crimes
Right to defense
Abstract in English
The scope of the present study was to analyze the imputation of environmental crimes to legal entities under the constitutional right of defense, considering the lack of discipline in Law 9.605/98 and generic references to the Criminal and Criminal Procedure Codes. The presentation of the theme under study has been divided into two parts, from the perspective of criminal law (Chapters 1 and 2) and criminal procedural law (Chapters 3 and 4). Such division is justified by virtue of the relationship established between the two branches, which maintain a mutual functional complementariness and, simultaneously, hold tension spaces among themselves. Based on this finding, the expansion of criminal law from the perspective of the risk society was then analyzed. Thereafter, the present study focused on how Law 9.605/98 had incorporated such expansion trends, by studying the concept of legal right, abstract danger crimes and the ancillary use of administrative law and principles. After having delimited the influence of risk society under environmental criminal dogmatic, the study aimed at the criminal liability of legal entities, in order to understand how it was inserted in the legal system. Upon the analysis of the requirements set forth for the criminal liability of legal entities, the study presents the difficulties related to adapting the traditional concepts of action and guilt to the legal entity, since they were traditionally forged under an individual perspective. It was shown that such difficulties may lead to the filing of generic complaints, circumstance that infringes Article 41 of the Criminal Procedure Code. Moreover, the study highlighted that new analyzes of collective criminal liability derive from the overcoming of some traditional ontological patterns of the crime theory, under a normative perspective. The conclusions reached in the first part were then applied to the second part of the dissertation, from the analysis of the right of defense and imputation. From our standpoint, the right to broad defense to its full extent is guaranteed to the legal entity. Among the procedural problems related to the criminal liability of legal entities, the most relevant under the perspective of broad defense were herein addressed: complaint, summons, application of institutes such as plea bargaining and probation of the lawsuit, interrogatories, imposition of penalty and suitability of autonomous objection lawsuits.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-09-12
 
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