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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.2.2016.tde-24022016-164831
Document
Author
Full name
Thiago Pedro Pagliuca dos Santos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Salvador Netto, Alamiro Velludo (President)
Costa, Helena Regina Lobo da
Pontes, Daniel Pacheco
Title in Portuguese
O princípio da ofensividade como complemento necessário à regra da legalidade penal no Estado Democrático de Direito
Keywords in Portuguese
Arbitragem
Princípio da legalidade
Abstract in Portuguese
As ideias políticas e filosóficas que influenciaram a criação da regra da legalidade penal e do princípio da ofensividade têm origem no Iluminismo. Principalmente durante a Idade Média e o Antigo Regime, confundia-se crime com pecado e as pessoas podiam ser punidas por mero capricho do soberano, sem que existisse lei. As arbitrariedades eram gritantes. A finalidade de ambas as teorias surgidas no período da Ilustração, portanto ao pregarem que era necessária a existência de lei prévia para que alguém fosse punido (regra da legalidade) e que o crime pressupunha uma lesão a direito ou bem jurídico de terceiro (princípio da ofensividade) , era a mesma: limitar o poder punitivo. No entanto, a regra da legalidade penal foi muito mais absorvida pelo discurso dogmático-jurídico do que o princípio da ofensividade, sendo oportuno, pois, analisar as razões pelas quais isso ocorreu. Algumas delas serão analisadas neste estudo como, por exemplo, a ausência de previsão explícita desse princípio nas Constituições, a suposta incompatibilidade desse princípio com a separação de poderes e com a própria regra da legalidade penal e a insegurança jurídica que a aplicação de princípios poderia gerar. Além disso, há um fator político de destaque: a consolidação da burguesia exigia a imposição de limites formais ao poder estatal, mas não limites materiais. Outro fator importante foi o advento do positivismo criminológico, no final do século XIX, que, ao confundir crime com doença, retornou ao paradigma do direito penal do autor que havia vigorado na Idade Média. Finalmente, para demonstrar o que impediu a consolidação do princípio da ofensividade especificamente no Brasil, será analisada a influência da doutrina europeia na dogmática nacional.
Title in English
The harm principle as a necessary complement to the legality principle in the democratic rule-of-law state
Keywords in English
Harm
Juridical asset
Legality
Offense
Principle
Abstract in English
The political and philosophical ideas that influenced the creation of the principle of legality and the harm principle came from the Age of Enlightenment. Mainly during the Middle Age and the Old Regime, there was a confusion between crime and sin and people could be punished simply because of the whim of the sovereign, with no law. The arbitrariness were enormous. The reason for both theories that were born at the Age of Reason which required that the legal rules would have to be declared beforehand (principle of legality) and that the crime presupposed a harm or injury to other individuals (harm principle) were the same: to limit the power of punishment. However, it can be seen that the rule of the legality has been taken by the dogmatic and legal speech much more deeper than the harm principle, being opportune then, to analyze the reasons it happened. Some of them will be analyzed in this research, for instance, the absence of this explicit principle in the Constitutions, the alleged incompatibility of this principle with the separation of powers and the legality rule itself and the legal uncertainty that the application of principles could trigger. Furthermore, there is a major political factor: the consolidation of the bourgeoisie demanded the imposition of formal limits to the power of the state, but not material limits. Another important factor was the advent of positivist criminology, in the late nineteenth century, which, by confusing crime with illness, brought the paradigm of criminal law of the author, which was applied in the Middle Ages, back. At last, to show what stopped the consolidation of the harm principle specifically in Brazil, there will be an analysis of the influence of European doctrine in the Brazilian dogmatic.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-05-31
 
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