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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.2.2011.tde-03042012-132720
Document
Author
Full name
Cristina Emy Yokaichiya
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Reale Junior, Miguel (President)
Paschoal, Janaina Conceição
Tangerino, Davi de Paiva Costa
Title in Portuguese
A finalidade da pena nos crimes contra o meio ambiente
Keywords in Portuguese
Crime ecológico
Direito penal ecológico
Meio ambiente
Penas
Abstract in Portuguese
O presente trabalho tem como objeto a análise da finalidade da pena nos crimes contra o meio ambiente. Pretendeu-se rediscutir as teorias das penas que procuram atribuir à pena fins que legitimem sua existência e aplicação à luz do Direito Penal ambiental, cujas peculiaridades na formação do injusto jurídico-penal produzem reflexos sobre essa legitimação no Estado democrático de Direito. Para tanto, expôs-se criticamente as principais teorias das penas, que se ocuparam de definir os conceitos de retribuição e prevenção. A partir dessa base, as características do Direito Penal do meio ambiente foram confrontadas com as teorias das penas, tecendo-se considerações sobre o bem jurídico ambiental, os sujeitos destinatários das normas, a utilização da remissão administrativa, os delitos de perigo abstrato e a reparação do dano. Diante desse panorama, demonstrou-se que as escolhas legislativas quanto à estrutura do injusto penal ambiental e às sanções dele decorrentes desencadeiam uma perda de conteúdo dos fins das penas conhecidos. Em outras palavras, parece haver um descompasso entre as teorias das penas e o Direito Penal, em especial na seara ambiental. No contexto de busca por uma finalidade da pena nos crimes contra o meio ambiente, verificou-se haver o reconhecimento doutrinário de uma função simbólica da sanção penal para a construção de uma ética ambiental , que não deveria prevalecer sobre os efeitos instrumentais da pena, sob risco de deterioração da credibilidade do Direito Penal, em face da ineficiência na resolução efetiva de conflitos. Por fim, investigou-se, nas decisões dos tribunais superiores brasileiros, desde a vigência da Lei de Crimes Ambientais, a efetiva aplicação das penas no Direito Penal ambiental. O quadro resultante deste levantamento empírico, a nosso ver, confirma o diagnóstico de que o Direito Penal ambiental deveria ser restrito aos casos mais graves de degradação ambiental, convergente com a intervenção mínima e subsidiária. Aperfeiçoar as normas penais ambientais, com estruturas de imputação compatíveis com uma política criminal que valoriza os direitos fundamentais, parece ser a melhor alternativa para garantir, além do simbolismo, a prevalência dos fins manifestos da sanção penal.
Title in French
Le ròle de las peines dans les crimes contre lenvironnement
Keywords in French
Droit pénal de lenvironment
Fonction symbolique
Ròle de las peines
Superior Tribunal de Justiça
Supremo Tribunal Federal
Abstract in French
This work aimed to study the objectives of criminal punishments in environmental crimes. Theories on criminal punishments, which attempt to underpin the rightness and justification of criminal sanctions, were reexamined in light of environmental criminal law, whose idiosyncrasies with respect to the shape and form of criminal offenses echo on rule of law legitimacy processes. In order to achieve such analysis, major theories on criminal punishments were critically assessed, as were the definitions of retribution and deterrence. This departure point allowed for the characteristics of environmental criminal law to be confronted with theories on criminal punishments, and as a result for the examination of environmental criminal laws object of protection, its subjects, the use of administrative guidelines, abstract endangerment crimes, and restoration. Such analyses indicate that legislative choices with regard to the structure of environmental criminal offenses and their sanctions have diluted criminal punishments objectives according to traditional theories. In other words, theories on criminal punishments seem not to be synchronized with factual criminal law, especially in the environmental field. Amidst the search for criminal punishments objectives in environmental crimes, doctrinal studies have confirmed the existence of an objective symbolic communication related to environmentalist ethics for criminal punishments in crimes against the environment. Such function should not prevail to the detriment of criminal punishments instrumental effects, because it could jeopardize criminal laws credibility, due to the lack of effective dispute resolution. Finally, Brazilian superior courts decisions since the enactment of the Environmental Crimes Law were studied to verify the actual application of criminal punishments related to the environment. This empirical work has, in our view, confirmed that environmental criminal law should be restricted to the most acute cases of environmental damages, in accordance with minimal and subsidiary interference by criminal law. Enhancing environmental criminal law, making its application convergent with a criminal policy that strengthens fundamental rights, seem to be the preferred path for ensuring, beyond symbolism, the explicit objectives of criminal punishments.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-04-14
 
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