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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.2.2013.tde-16052014-132605
Document
Author
Full name
Abrão Miguel Árabe Neto
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Amaral Junior, Alberto do (President)
Borges, Daniel Damasio
Celli Junior, Umberto
Negro, Sandra Cecilia
Thorstensen, Vera Helena
Title in Portuguese
Ajustes de carbono na fronteira: análise da necessidade de disciplinas multilaterais para sua regulação
Keywords in Portuguese
Aquecimento global
Comércio internacional
Direito internacional
Mudança climática
Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC)
Abstract in Portuguese
A comunidade internacional tem se convencido sobre a seriedade da mudança climática e a necessidade de respostas urgentes para combatê-la. No entanto, a ausência de um regime universal com metas para os principais poluidores faz com que cada país adote ações individuais de maneira descoordenada. Esse descompasso levanta preocupações sobre possíveis impactos para a competitividade e a eficácia dos esforços dos países com políticas climáticas mais ambiciosas. Com o escopo de neutralizar tais ameaças, desponta a alternativa de adoção de ajustes de carbono na fronteira para equalizar os encargos ambientais entre a indústria doméstica e as importações. Nesse contexto, a presente tese defende a criação de disciplinas internacionais para orientar o uso de ajustes de carbono em sintonia com os valores do livre comércio e da preservação do clima. Recomenda-se que as negociações internacionais sejam lideradas pelas Nações Unidas, na moldura do regime climático, porém, em estreito diálogo e cooperação com a Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC). A partir da análise de possíveis cenários, o trabalho expressa preferência por disciplinas multilaterais. Reconhece-se, contudo, méritos em arranjos intermediários, como os instrumentos setoriais. Por fim, indica-se um roteiro sobre os principais aspectos da aplicação dos ajustes de carbono que mereceriam apreciação em plano internacional.
Title in English
Border carbon adjustments: analysis of the necessity of multilateral disciplines
Keywords in English
Border carbon adjustments
Carbon leakage
Climate change
Global warming
International climate regime
International trade
Multilateral trading system
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
World Trade Organization
WTO
Abstract in English
The international community has acknowledged the need for urgent responses to address climate change. However, in the absence of a global agreement setting binding targets for all major polluters, countries pursue individual actions in an uncoordinated fashion. Such a situation raises concerns on competitiveness impacts and on the environmental effectiveness of climate policies of most countries, especially those leading the way. As a solution to level the playing field vis-à-vis international competitors, countries evaluate the use of border carbon adjustments. Against this background, this analysis supports the design of international disciplines to guide the use of border carbon adjustments in line with the goals of free trade and climate protection. It argues that the United Nations should lead those negotiations in the framework of the climate regime, in close dialogue and cooperation with the World Trade Organization (WTO). Based on an analysis of multiple scenarios, this essay favours the adoption of multilateral disciplines. It recognizes, however, advantages in alternative approaches such as sectorial agreements. Finally, it proposes a roadmap on key aspects concerning the use of border carbon adjustments that merit consideration in the international arena.
 
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Publishing Date
2014-06-17
 
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