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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.2.2017.tde-19112020-001411
Document
Author
Full name
Guilherme Jardim Duarte
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Ferreira Filho, Manoel Gonçalves (President)
Almeida, Fernanda Dias Menezes de
Francisco, José Carlos
Leal, Roger Stiefelmann
Nalini, José Renato
Title in Portuguese
Independência de jure e de facto de Supremas Cortes e Tribunais Constitucionais: um estudo comparado
Keywords in Portuguese
Autonomia dos poderes
Direito Comparado -- Brasil -- Argentina -- Colômbia -- Venezuela
Poder judiciário
Tribunal Constitucional
Tribunal Supremo
Abstract in Portuguese
A tese tem como objetivo analisar as relações causais entre independência judicial de jure e de facto de Supremas Cortes e Tribunais Constitucionais. Independência de jure consiste nas garantias oferecidas ao membros do Poder Judiciário para que possam desempenhar suas funções sem embaraços. Independência de facto corresponde ao comportamento do magistrado, ao decidir sem sofrer ameaças e represálias. Para tanto, desenvolvemos uma teoria explicativa que envolve tanto os fatores mencionados quanto fatores de ordem política, como participação popular, competição política, confiança pública e ativismo político. Para testar nossa teoria, consideramos quatro casos: o do Supremo Tribunal federal brasileiro após a Constituição de 1988, a Corte Suprema Argentina após a redemocratizãção, a Corte Constitucional colombiana, após a Carta de 1991, e o Tribunal Supremo venezuela após a Constituição de 1999. Após analisar os casos, concluímos que sobretudo o procedimento de seleção, a alteração do número de membros das Cortes e a dificuldade do procedimento de remoção são os fatores principais que permitem que o Poder Legislativo e o Poder Executivo possam intervir nas Cortes Supremas. Entretanto, isso só é possível quando há baixa confiança institucional nas Cortes.
Title in English
De jure and de facto independence of Supreme and Constitutional Courts: a comparative study
Keywords in English
Brazilian Supreme Court
Judicial Behavior
Judicial Independence
Judicial Politics
Abstract in English
This dissertation aims to analyze the casual relations between de jure and de facto judicial independence of Supreme and Constitutional Courts. De jure independence regards the guarantees offered to members of the Judicial Power so that they are able to perform their duties with no restraints. De facto independence corresponds to the judicial behavior, i.e. one decides free from reprisal or threats. Therefore, we have developed an explanatory theory which involves not only the aforementioned factors but also those of a political agenda, such as public participation, political competition, public trust and political activism. In order to test our theory, we shall consider four cases: the one of the Brazilian Supreme Court after the Constitution of 1988, the Argentine Supreme Court after the redemocratization process, the Colombian Constitutional Court after the Letter of 1991, and the Venezuelan Supreme Court after the Constitution of 1999. We concluded that the selection process, the altering of the number of Court members, and the difficulty posed by termination procedures are the key factors which enable the Legislative and Executive Powers to intervene in Supreme Courts. Nevertheless, interventions are only likely when there are low levels of institutional trust in Courts.
 
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Release Date
2022-11-19
Publishing Date
2021-08-18
 
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