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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.2.2019.tde-07082020-143927
Document
Author
Full name
Renata Rocha Villela
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Júnior, José Levi Mello do Amaral (President)
Horbach, Carlos Bastide
Ramos, Luciana de Oliveira
Reis, Daniel Gustavo Falcão Pimentel dos
Silveira, Marilda de Paula
Tojal, Sebastiao Botto de Barros
Title in Portuguese
Partidos políticos e controle de constitucionalidade: o uso estratégico das ações de controle abstrato
Keywords in Portuguese
Comportamento estratégico
Controle de constitucionalidade
Judicialização
Legitimidade ativa
Oposição
Partidos políticos
Abstract in Portuguese
O ponto de partida do presente trabalho foi a constatação de que os partidos políticos figuram entre os principais proponentes de ações de controle abstrato de constitucionalidade no Brasil. A partir daí, buscou-se compreender os objetivos almejados pelas siglas proponentes e as consequências decorrentes da prática narrada. Para tanto, iniciou-se com a análise das características das ações de controle abstrato que as permitem ser meios estratégicos de atuação política, como o efeito erga omnes e vinculante e a possibilidade de obtenção de liminares. Em seguida, tratou-se dos instrumentos à disposição dos partidos para atuação nos Poderes Legislativo, Executivo e Judiciário e explorou-se as justificativas fornecidas pela literatura para a ampla judicialização por eles promovida. De modo a agregar dados empíricos à pesquisa, fez-se o estudo de 210 ações propostas contra leis federais entre 1995 e 2017 e dos discursos proferidos no Plenário da Câmara dos Deputados pelos parlamentares integrantes dos partidos proponentes de ações diretas de inconstitucionalidade, bem como realizou-se entrevistas com advogados signatários das ações. Com base na pesquisa e nos dados coletados, foi proposta uma nova classificação dos objetivos almejados pelos partidos com as ações de controle, quais sejam, realização de oposição, defesa dos interesses da classe política, arbitramento de conflitos, defesa dos direitos fundamentais e das minorias, intermediação de interesses privados e instrumento de negociação. A conclusão a que se chegou é que, em alguns casos, há partidos que parecem propor ações principalmente como estratégia para atingimento de interesses próprios ou de terceiros. A prática pode ser considerada negativa por adicionar pontos de estrangulamento à implementação de políticas voltadas a alterar o status quo, e por promover o deslocamento da oposição para a esfera do Judiciário e o desprestígio dos Poderes Políticos. Por essas razões, propôs-se a revisão da legitimação dos partidos com a introdução de critérios condicionantes do seu exercício.
Title in English
Political Parties and Judicial Review: strategic use of abstract control actions
Keywords in English
Judicial Review
Judicialization
Opposition
Political Parties
Standing
Strategic Behavior
Abstract in English
The starting point of this study was the finding that political parties are amongst the main filers of actions for abstract constitutionality review in Brazil. Based on this, the study sought to understand the objectives desired by the filing parties and the consequences resulting from such practice. For such purpose, an analysis was initially carried out, assessing the characteristics of abstract control actions that allow them to be strategic means of political activity, such as the erga omnes and binding effects and the possibility of being granted injunctions. After that, the instruments made available to the political parties for operation in the Legislative, Executive and Judiciary Branches were addressed, and the justifications provided by the literature for the broad judicialization promoted by them were explored. In order to add empirical data to the research, an assessment was made on 210 selected actions, filed against the federal laws between the years 1995 and 2017, and on the speeches delivered at the Full Session of the House of Deputies by those parliamentarians integrating the parties that brought Direct Unconstitutionality Actions, and interviews were conducted with the attorneys that filed the actions. Based on research and collected data, a new classification of the objectives sought by the parties through review actions - i.e., defense of the interests of the political class, settlement of conflicts, defense of fundamental rights and minority rights, intermediation of private interests and instrument of negotiation - was proposed. The conclusion reached is that, in some cases, there are parties that seems to file actions mainly as a strategy to achieve either their own or third-party interests. The practice can be considered negative as it creates bottlenecks against the promotion of policies aimed at changing the status quo, causes the displacement of the opposition to the sphere of the Judiciary Branch as well as the loss of face of Political Powers. For the above reasons, a review of the standing of political parties was proposed to introduce conditioning criteria for its exercise.
 
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Release Date
2022-08-07
Publishing Date
2020-08-24
 
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