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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.2.2017.tde-15032021-172112
Document
Author
Full name
Ana Luiza Garcia Campos
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Nusdeo, Ana Maria de Oliveira (President)
Igari, Alexandre Toshiro
Pucci, Rafael Diniz
Sinisgalli, Paulo Antonio de Almeida
Trentini, Flavia
Yoshida, Consuelo Yatsuda Moromizato
Title in Portuguese
Instrumentos para conservação das reservas florestais e demais formas de vegetação localizadas nas propriedades privadas.
Keywords in Portuguese
Áreas de preservação permanente
Código Florestal
Policymix
Política ambiental
Reserva legal
Abstract in Portuguese
As primeiras regras e sanções nacionais envolvendo a exploração de florestas e o uso do solo foram editadas ainda no período colonial (1500-1822). Já o primeiro Código Florestal Brasileiro formal começou a ganhar corpo a partir de 1934, quando foi estabelecido que imóveis rurais mantivessem parcelas de vegetação nativa para garantir um suprimento de carvão e de lenha - combustíveis indispensáveis à economia da época. Novas leis e decretos foram editados entre 1965 e 2012, sempre protegendo parcelas de vegetação nativa em propriedades e posses rurais. Nesse período, foram consolidados os instrumentos da Reserva Legal (RL) e da Área de Preservação Permanente (APP). Com a Constituição Federal de 1988, deixou de ser competência exclusiva do Governo Federal legislar sobre a manutenção da vegetação nativa em propriedades e posses rurais. Desde então, os estados, em especial, podem estabelecer regras próprias, desde que em consonância com normativa nacional. Embora a legislação carecesse da devida aplicação durante anos, as restrições ao desmatamento cresceram em meados da década de 90, até que em 2004 foi estruturado um plano de ação federal de prevenção e controle do desmatamento na Amazônia Legal (PPCDAm) e em 2008 foi editado o Decreto nº. 6514/08 que tipifica infrações administrativas relacionadas a essas áreas. Após intenso embate público e político, a reforma do Código Florestal foi aprovada no Congresso Nacional e publicada em maio de 2012. Embora controversa, a Lei nº. 12.651 é hoje o principal instrumento regulador sobre a conservação e uso de vegetação natural em áreas privadas no Brasil. Ocorre que com o advento do novo código, esses áreas sofreram significativas modificações quanto à possibilidade de utilização de instrumentos para sua implantação. Dito de outro forma, se antes havia uma predominância de instrumentos de comando e controle para sua implementação, atualmente existe a possibilidade de utilização combinada de instrumentos de comando e controle com instrumentos de incentivo positivo (policymix) destinados a auxiliar a instituição, recuperação e manutenção das áreas de RL e APP. Nesse sentido, o objetivo da presente tese é analisar a inserção desses instrumentos, seu regime jurídico e sua eficácia.
Title in English
Instruments for the Conservation of Forest Reserves and Other Forms of Vegetation on Private Properties.
Keywords in English
Environmental Policy
Forest Code
Legal Reserve
Permanent Preservation Areas
Policymix
Abstract in English
The first Brazilian rules and sanctions involving the exploitation of forests and the use of the soil were enacted as early as the country's colonial period (1500-1822). The first Brazilian Forest Code began to take shape in 1934, when it was established that rural properties had to keep a portion of native vegetation to ensure the supply of coal and firewood - fuels indispensable to the economy of the time. New laws and decrees were issued between 1965 and 2012, always protecting a certain amount of native vegetation on rural properties and possessions. During this period, the Legal Reserve (RL) and Permanent Preservation Area (APP) instruments were consolidated. Since the Brazilian Constitution of 1988, it is no longer the sole competence of the Federal Government to legislate on the protection of native vegetation on rural properties and possessions. Since then, the States may also issue their own norms, provided that this is done in line with national regulations. Although legislation has not been adequately enforced for years, limits to deforestation gained momentum in the mid-1990s. This culminated in a federal action plan to prevent and control deforestation in the Legal Amazon region (the PPCDAm) being established in 2004, followed by Decree #6514 of 2008 establishing administrative infractions in connection to these areas. After intense public and political clashes, the reform of the Forest Code was approved by the National Congress and published in May 2012. Albeit controversial, Law # 12651 is today the main regulation on the conservation and use of native vegetation in private properties in Brazil. It happens that with the new code these areas have undergone significant modifications as to the possibility of using instruments for their implantation. In other words, if before there was a predominance of command and control instruments for implementation, there is currently the possibility of combined use of command and control instruments with positive incentive instruments (policymix) aimed to assist in establishing, recovering and maintaining RL and APP areas. In this sense, the objective of this thesis is to analyze such instruments in terms of legal framework and effectiveness.
 
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Release Date
2023-03-15
Publishing Date
2021-06-10
 
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