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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.2.2017.tde-18122020-103338
Document
Author
Full name
Luiza Perrelli Bartolo
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Azevedo, Alvaro Villaca (President)
Almeida, Jose Luiz Gaviao de
Barbosa Filho, Marcelo Fortes
Title in Portuguese
Garantias fidejussórias: os contratos de fiança, garantia autônoma e seguro garantia. Aspectos atuais
Keywords in Portuguese
Garantia contratual
Indenização
Prejuízo
Risco
Seguro de garantias de obrigações contratuais
Abstract in Portuguese
Por meio deste trabalho, buscou-se analisar algumas das difíceis questões que envolvem, atualmente, os contratos de fiança, garantia autônoma e seguro garantia, os quais se inserem no gênero das garantias fidejussórias. A cada dia que passa, os credores desejam obter maior certeza de que, na hipótese de descumprimento das obrigações a cargo dos devedores, as garantias oferecidas pelos últimos serão ágeis e eficazes na reparação dos danos causados. Justamente por isso a garantia autônoma, contrato atípico ao qual nos dedicamos no terceiro capítulo deste trabalho, vem sendo cada vez mais utilizada no âmbito das operações econômicas, sejam elas internas ou internacionais. Muitas vezes as partes querem gozar dos benefícios decorrentes do caráter autônomo da obrigação sem se sujeitar ao regramento, ou melhor, à falta de regramento dos contratos atípicos. Por isso, tem sido extremamente comum se deparar com contratos denominados fiança, contendo a previsão de que o fiador renuncia à possibilidade de opor as exceções extintivas da obrigação garantida. Ocorre que a referida previsão vai de encontro a uma das nuances da acessoriedade, característica intrínseca desse tipo contratual de fiança, sobre o qual se assenta todo o seu regime. Um mecanismo muito usado para conferir agilidade ao funcionamento das garantias tem sido a inclusão da chamada cláusula on first demand. Por meio dela, o garante se obriga a fazer o pagamento da quantia prevista ao credor beneficiário mediante a simples informação de que houve o descumprimento por parte do devedor, sem ser necessário comprová-lo. Buscou-se verificar se essa cláusula é compatível com os regimes do contrato de fiança e de seguro garantia, concluindo pela incompatibilidade em relação ao primeiro e pela compatibilidade em relação ao último. O contrato de seguro garantia carrega consigo todas as vantagens inerentes aos contratos de seguro, em especial, a possibilidade de compartilhamento dos riscos por meio do instituto resseguro. Entretanto, o procedimento necessário para a obtenção da indenização é, muitas vezes, penoso para o credor segurado, pois, para demonstrar que o risco segurado se concretizou, ele terá que demonstrar seu caráter culposo. Apresentamos as soluções que nos parecem, atualmente, possíveis para tornar o aludido procedimento, comumente designado de regulação, menos penoso, esperando contribuir, ao menos, para a reflexão sobre o tema.
Title in English
Fiduciary guarantees: surety bond agreements, autonomous guarantees and insurance guarantee policies
Keywords in English
Accessory nature
Autonomy
Guarantee
Indemnity
Loss
Obligation
Performance
Risk
Abstract in English
In this study, the author examines certain current issues pertaining to surety bonds, autonomous guarantees and insurance guarantee policies, all of which are classified as 'fiduciary guarantees'. Obligees (contractual 'creditors') increasingly seek a greater degree of certainty that, in the event of breach of contractual duties by the obligors, the performance bonds/guarantees offered by said obligors can be relied upon to effectively and efficiently cover any ensuing losses. It is precisely for this reason that the use 'autonomous guarantee agreements' (which are deemed to be 'atypical contracts' under Brazilian law) is increasing in the ambit of domestic and international economic operations. Frequently, contractual parties wish to benefit from the autonomous nature of guarantee obligations without subjecting the agreement to the rules (or, in many cases, the lack of defined rules) applicable to contracts classified as 'atypical' under Brazilian law. As such, it is very common for surety bond agreements to contain a waiver by the surety of the right to assert legal grounds for the extinction of the guaranteed obligation. Such waivers, however, run contrary to the one of the tenets of accessory contracts. The type of surety bond agreements in question are accessory contracts and all the applicable rules pertaining to such sureties are based on this characteristic of the agreement being an accessory contract. Furthermore, so-called 'on first demand' clauses are increasingly used as a means of promoting agility in the functioning of guarantees. Pursuant to such clauses, the guarantor agrees to effect payment of the stipulated amount to the beneficiary obligee upon presentation of information that the obligor has failed to perform its obligations, with no proof being necessary. In this study, the author considers whether such clauses are compatible with the legal rules pertaining to surety bond agreements and insurance guarantee policies. She concludes that 'on first demand clauses' are not compatible with the rules on surety bond agreements but are compatible with the rules on insurance guarantee policies. Insurance guarantee policies have all the inherent advantages of insurance contracts, in particular the possibility of apportioning the risks by means of reinsurance. However, the necessary procedure for obtaining indemnity is frequently arduous for the insured obligee, in that, in order to demonstrate that the insured risk has materialized said obligee needs to prove the existence of culpability. The author sets out the solutions she considers to be a viable means of easing these difficulties in the loss adjustment process, her main aim being to contribute to further reflection on this issue.
 
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Release Date
2022-12-18
Publishing Date
2021-04-20
 
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