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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.2.2018.tde-06112020-192322
Document
Author
Full name
Maria Conceição Amgarten
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Maluf, Carlos Alberto Dabus (President)
Azevedo, Alvaro Villaca
Cahali, Francisco Jose
Silva Filho, Artur Marques da
Souza, Luiz Henrique Boselli de
Viana, Rui Geraldo Camargo
Title in Portuguese
O abandono como fundamento da usucapião familiar
Keywords in Portuguese
Abandono
Moradia
Princípio da solidariedade
Usucapião Familiar
Abstract in Portuguese
A usucapião familiar, prevista no artigo 1.240-A do Código Civil, adveio da Lei n. 12.424, de 16 de junho de 2011, que tutelou as questões relativas ao Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida. O instituto trouxe grandes debates para o cenário jurídico ao possibilitar a perda da propriedade de imóvel urbano de até 250 m², por parte de ex-cônjuge ou ex-companheiro que tenha abandonado o lar, pelo prazo mínimo de dois anos. Diante desse abandono, o excônjuge ou ex-companheiro que permaneceu no imóvel, utilizando-o para a sua moradia ou de sua família, passa a ser o único proprietário do bem, que anteriormente era de ambos, desde que não seja proprietário de outro imóvel urbano ou rural. O artigo 1.240-A do Código Civil não obstante o seu caráter social apresenta redação bastante criticada pela doutrina, em virtude de suas imprecisões técnicas; discute-se inclusive a sua inconstitucionalidade material e formal. A inadequada expressão "abandono do lar", alvo das maiores e fundadas críticas, remete a um tempo de opressão das mulheres, quando estas, por vezes, eram compelidas a se submeterem a situações permeadas por ofensas físicas e morais, a fim de evitarem a perda de direitos patrimoniais. No entanto, a usucapião familiar tem justamente o intuito de proteger a moradia, enquanto direito fundamental, pensando a esse respeito, não apenas, mas especialmente nas mulheres, já que a observação da realidade demonstra que, sobretudo, na população de baixa renda, o homem costuma deixar o lar para constituir nova família, enquanto a mulher fica na casa, criando os filhos e arcando com todas as despesas, inclusive aquelas que dizem respeito à manutenção do imóvel e ao pagamento dos impostos. A perda da propriedade não deve ser vista como punição, mas sim como correção dos desequilíbrios, em face da ausência de assistência. O abandono que fundamenta a usucapião familiar não se refere ao "abandono do lar" previsto no artigo 1.573, inciso IV, do Código Civil, um dos motivos determinantes da "impossibilidade da comunhão de vida", nem tampouco caracteriza o mero abandono do imóvel, previsto no artigo 1.275, inciso III, do mesmo diploma legal, que configura uma das causas para a perda da propriedade, pois, se está diante de um tertium genus, decorrente da violação do princípio constitucional da solidariedade que rege as relações familiares.
Title in English
Abandonment as basis legal of the family adverse possession
Keywords in English
Abandonment
Dwelling Home
Family adverse possession
Principle of solidarity
Abstract in English
The family adverse possession subject to the provisions of Article 1.240-A of the Civil Code was originated from the Law no. 12,424, dated June 16, 2011, which approached issues related to the Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida. The article has brought great debates to the legal scene, by allowing the loss of the property rights of urban property of up to 250 m², by the ex-spouse or ex-mate, who has left home, for a minimum term of two years. In the face of this abandonment, the ex-spouse or ex-mate who remained in the property, using it for his or her family's or household, become the sole owner of the property, which was previously of the couple, since he or her was not owner of another urban or rural property. Article 1,240-A of the Civil Code, notwithstanding its social character, presents a redaction quite criticized by the doctrine, due to its technical inaccuracies; including its material and formal unconstitutionality. The inadequate expression of "abandonment of the home", which is the target of major and well-founded criticism, refers to a time of oppression of women, when they were sometimes compelled to submit to situations permeated by physical and moral offenses in order to avoid loss of property rights. However, the family adverse possession has the purpose of protecting dwelling home, as a fundamental right, thinking in this regard, not only, but especially in women, since the observation of reality shows that, above all, in the low-income population, the man usually leaves the home to constitute a new family, while the woman stays in the house, raising the children and paying all the expenses, including those that concern to the maintenance of the property and the payment of taxes. The loss of property rights should not be seen as punishment, but as a correction of imbalances, in the face of the absence of assistance. The abandonment that underlies the family adverse possession does not refer to the "abandonment of the home" subject to the provisions of Article 1,573, item IV, of the Civil Code, one of the determining reasons for the "impossibility of communion of life", nor does it characterize the mere abandonment of the property, subject to the provisions of Article 1.275, item III, of the Civil Code, which constitutes one of the causes for the loss of property rights, since it is a tertium genus, due to violation of the constitutional principle of solidarity that rules family relations.
 
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Release Date
2022-11-06
Publishing Date
2021-04-12
 
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