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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.2.2020.tde-04052021-162018
Document
Author
Full name
Ana Luiza de Faria Canassa
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2020
Supervisor
Committee
Morato, Antonio Carlos (President)
Garcia, Balmes Vega
Costa Netto, José Carlos
Santos, Manoel Joaquim Pereira dos
Title in Portuguese
Streaming e a função social do direito autoral
Keywords in Portuguese
Direito autoral
Evolução tecnológica
Música
Musical
Abstract in Portuguese
O streaming é uma tecnologia que revolucionou o mercado musical ao inaugurar um modelo de negócio que estimulou o consumo pago e lícito de música, em meio a um contexto marcado pela disseminação da pirataria, a partir do advento da Internet. O streaming compreende um fluxo de transmissão de dados, através da rede, que permite a emissão e a recepção simultâneas desses dados, sem que haja armazenamento de conteúdo na memória do computador do usuário. A partir dos anos 2000, foram criadas plataformas, baseadas nessa tecnologia, que oferecem catálogos amplos e diversificados de conteúdos musicais, cujos direitos autorais e conexos são previamente negociados com seus titulares, a um preço acessível ao consumidor. A popularização desses serviços gerou expectativas de diminuição da pirataria, maior acesso à cultura pelo público e de viabilizar a desintermediação do mercado musical, possibilitando a negociação direta das plataformas com autores e artistas, garantindo melhores remunerações a estes, o que ocasionaria na derrocada da indústria fonográfica. O streaming surge com a proposta de garantir um equilíbrio entre interesses dos autores e artistas e da coletividade, no mercado musical, atendendo aos anseios da função social do direito autoral. Para avaliar se essas expectativas foram atendidas, utilizou-se do método dialético, partindo de uma abordagem do contexto da Sociedade da Informação, dentro do qual foram analisados os avanços tecnológicos que proporcionaram a difusão de obras musicais desde os primórdios, até alcançar o streaming; os desafios enfrentados pela indústria fonográfica com o advento da Internet e com a expansão da pirataria; o surgimento, as características, as modalidades, o histórico, as discussões envolvendo a sua natureza jurídica e alguns aspectos práticos de mercado relacionados ao streaming. O objetivo é compreender a dinâmica dessa tecnologia, dentro de uma multiplicidade de contextos (econômico, jurídico, político, social) e, com base nessa abordagem, promover o estudo do par dialético: proteção autoral e acesso à cultura. No campo da análise jurídica do streaming, o método indutivo foi utilizado, partindo da análise de tratados internacionais; legislações estrangeiras; do texto legal, de alguns posicionamentos doutrinários e de decisões judiciais brasileiras, com o intuito de sugerir a melhor classificação jurídica dessa tecnologia no ordenamento jurídico pátrio. A partir de todo esse estudo, concluiu-se que, embora o streaming tenha dado passos importantes no sentido de atender às expectativas da função social do direito autoral, a tecnologia ainda enfrenta problemas que a afastam desses anseios, principalmente por estar muito atrelada à estrutura tradicional da indústria fonográfica, o que corrobora com o receio de que o direito autoral se torne um direito da empresa intermediária.
Title in English
Streaming e a função social do direito autoral
Keywords in English
Copyright
Music Market
Social Function
Streaming
Abstract in English
Streaming is a technology that has revolutionized the music market by inaugurating a business model that has stimulated the paid and lawful consumption of music, in a context marked by the spread of piracy, since the advent of the Internet. Streaming comprises a data transmission flow over the network that allows simultaneous transmission and reception of data without storing it in the user's computer memory. Starting in the 2000s, platforms based on this technology were created, offering broad and diversified catalogues of musical content, whose copyright and related rights were previously negotiated with their owners, at an affordable price to the consumer. The popularization of these services created expectations of reducing piracy, offering greater access to culture for the public and enabling the disintermediation of the music market, by the direct negotiation of platforms with authors and artists, ensuring better remuneration for them, which would lead to the collapse of the phonographic industry. Streaming came with the proposal of assuring a balance between the interests of authors and artists and the society, in the context of music market, complying with the aspirations of the social function of copyright. To evaluate whether these expectations were answered, the dialectical method was used, beginning by making an approach to the context of the Information Society, within which the following aspects were analyzed: the technological advances that provided the diffusion of musical works from the earliest times until the dawn of streaming; the challenges faced by the phonographic industry with the advent of the Internet and the spread of piracy; the emergence, characteristics, modalities, history, discussions involving its legal nature and some practical market aspects related to streaming. The objective of that analysis was to understand the dynamics of this technology, within a multiplicity of contexts (economic, legal, political, social) and, based on this approach, to promote the study of the dialectical pair: copyright protection and access to culture. In the field of streaming legal aspects, the inductive method was used to analyze international treaties; foreign laws; national law, doctrinal positions and judicial decisions, in order to suggest the best legal classification of this technology in the national legal system. From this study, it was concluded that, although streaming has taken important steps towards answering the expectations of the social function of copyright, the technology still faces problems that keep it away from such expectations, mainly because it is still very attached to the traditional structure of the recording industry, which corroborates the fear that copyright will become a right of intermediaries.
 
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Release Date
2023-05-04
Publishing Date
2021-06-16
 
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