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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.18.2010.tde-19012011-100149
Document
Author
Full name
Deuzuita dos Santos Oliveira
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Pagliuso, Josmar Davilson (President)
Abrantes, Rui de
Domingos, Marisa
Marra Junior, Wiclef Dymurgo
Santos, Antonio Moreira dos
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação comparativa do risco mutagênico dos poluentes provenientes dos combustíveis renováveis (álcool e biodiesel) e não renováveis (gasolina e diesel) através do bioensaio Trad-SH
Keywords in Portuguese
Combustíveis fósseis e renováveis
Emissão veicular
Mutagenicidade e bioensaio Trad-SH
Abstract in Portuguese
As emissões veiculares constituem-se em uma das mais graves ameaças a qualidade de vida da população, principalmente nos grandes centros urbanos. Poluentes de origem veicular podem induzir alterações no material genético de organismos a eles expostos, pois nessas emissões, destacam-se entre outros, os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs), que são substâncias consideradas carcinogênicas e mutagênicas. A utilização de indicadores sensíveis a ação de agentes genotóxicos serve para avaliar a presença destes compostos no ambiente. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar comparativamente o risco mutagênico das emissões provenientes da combustão dos combustíveis fósseis (gasolina e diesel) e renováveis (álcool e biodiesel), utilizando o bioensaio Trad-SH. Os ensaios foram realizados utilizando veículos do ciclo Diesel (Citröen JUMPER 2.8 L, 2006) e do ciclo Otto (VW FOX 1.6 Flex, 2005 sem o conversor catalítico), em um dinamômetro de chassi, submetidos a um ciclo de condução urbano padronizado (FTP-75) modificado, para a coleta dos gases de escapamento. Os gases foram misturados com o ar ambiente e homogeneizados para simular o que ocorre no trânsito urbano. As inflorescências do clone KU-20 de Tradescantia foram expostas a mistura de poluentes, provenientes dos veículos, dentro de uma câmara de fumigação, por duas horas. Para a avaliação do efeito mutagênico foi feita uma comparação entre as inflorescências não expostas aos poluentes (grupo 1) e as inflorescências expostas as emissões do álcool (grupo 2), do biodiesel (grupo 3), da gasolina (grupo 4) e do diesel (grupo 5). Os dados obtidos dos experimentos foram analisados estatisticamente onde se observou que a freqüência média das mutações no grupo 1 (controle), foi significativamente mais baixa do que aquela dos grupos 2, 3, 4, e 5. Os resultados indicam que as emissões dos veículos abastecidos com combustíveis fósseis (gasolina e diesel), são mais mutagênicas do que as emissões provenientes da combustão dos combustíveis renováveis (álcool e biodiesel).
Title in English
Assessment and comparison of mutagenic risk of pollutants from combustion from renewable fuels (ethanol and biodiesel) and non-renewable (gasoline and diesel) by Trad-SH assay
Keywords in English
Fossil and renewable fuels
Mutagenicity bioassay Trad-SH
Vehicular emission
Abstract in English
The vehicle emissions constitute a major serious threat to the population's quality of life, especially in the large urban areas. Pollutants from vehicle origin may lead to changes concerning the genetic material of some organisms that have been exposed to them, and within these emissions it is stood out among others the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which are carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds. The use of sensitive indicators to the action of genotoxic agents is useful to prevent and to evaluate the presence of these compounds in the environment. Therefore, this work is aimed at evaluating comparatively the mutagenic risk of emissions from the burning of fossil fuel (gasoline and diesel) and renewable ones (ethanol and biodiesel) by the use of Trad-SH bioassay. The assays were carried out using vehicles from the diesel cycle (Citröen JUMPER 2.8 L, 2006) and the Otto cycle (VW FOX 1.6 Flex, 2005, without a catalytic converter), in a chassis dynamometer, submitled to a standard urban driving cycle (FTP-75) in order to collect the gases of exhaust. The gases were mixed up to the atmosphere air and homogenized to simulate what happens in urban traffic. The inflorescences of KU-20 clone of Tradescantia were exposed to a mixture of pollutants from vehicles, in a fumigation chamber for two hours. To evaluate the mutagenic effect it was necessary to establish a comparison between the inflorescences which were not exposed to pollutants (group 1) and inflorescences exposed to emissions of alcohol (group 2), biodiesel (group 3), gasoline (group 4) and diesel (group 5). Data obtained from experiments were statistically analyzed in which appears that the average frequency of mutations in group 1 (control) was significantly lower than that of groups 2, 3, 4 and 5. The results indicate that emissions from vehicles fueled by fossil fuels (petrol and diesel) are more mutagenic than emissions from the combustion of renewable fuels (ethanol and biodiesel).
 
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Publishing Date
2011-02-07
 
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