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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.18.2016.tde-05012016-101204
Document
Author
Full name
João Carlos de Souza Matos
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2002
Supervisor
Committee
Viana, Virgilio Mauricio (President)
Bernardes, Marcos Silveira
Engel, Vera Lex
Fontes, Luiz Eduardo Ferreira
Schalch, Valdir
Title in Portuguese
Sistemas agroflorestais para a reabilitação de pastagens abandonadas na região de Manaus - AM
Keywords in Portuguese
Água
Amazônia
Áreas abandonadas
Mogno
Sistema agroflorestal
Abstract in Portuguese
O experimento foi estabelecido para testar e avaliar os diferentes sistemas agroflorestais na região de Manaus, quanto à dinâmica do crescimento dos componentes arbóreos e às características físicas do solo, em uma área que foi desmatada e posteriormente estabelecido uma pastagem. O desenho experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com 5 tratamentos, 3 repetições, em parcelas de 50 x 60 m. Os 4 sistemas foram específicos para recuperação de pastagem, sendo Agrossilvipastoril Altos Insumos (ASP1), Agrossilvipastoril Baixos Insumos (ASP2) Agrossilvicultural (ASC1) e Agrossilvicultural multi-estrato (ASC2). No ASP1, foram aplicado a Calagem e P, N, K, nos demais apenas adubação de P. Os sistemas ASP1 e ASP2 foram baseados em árvores, ASC1 com base em palmeiras e ASC2 com maior diversidade es espécies. Em todos os tratamentos foram plantadas culturas anuais durante a fase de crescimento das espécies arbóreas. No ASC1, a pupunha produziu pouca liteira, a Colubrina apresentou características que são desejáveis ao sistema agroflorestal, como o crescimento do fuste reto e boa qualidade de madeira. No ASC2 o cupuaçu teve sua produtividade elevada, devido a incorporação de folhas e galhos de ingá na fase de pr-e-floração. A castanha do Pará, o mogno e genipapo tiveram um bom desenvolvimento. O cultivo do mogno combinado com outras espécies florestais, com características semelhantes à do ingá, tais como rápido crescimento e produção de biomassa, apresentou menor percentagem de ataque (27%) do inseto Hypsipyla grandella Zeller, na fase inicial, com ataques superior a 8 m de altura da planta, o que tornaria possível ofertar madeira serrada maior que 6 m de comprimento. Os resultados do tratamento ASP1 indicam melhor disponibilidade de água no solo, devido principalmente este tratamento ser manejado com gramíneas, leguminosas de cobertura como desmodium e leguminosas arbóreas como Paricá e Ingá, responsáveis pela descompactação ) do solo durante a recuperação do pasto.
Title in English
Agroforestry systems for the rehabilitation of abandoned pastures in the region of the city of Manaus
Keywords in English
Abandoned pastures
Agroforestry system
Amazônia
Mogno
Water
Abstract in English
The experiment was established to test and evaluate the different agroforestry systems in the region of the City of Manaus (Central Brazilian Amazonia). A test aimed at the dynamics of growth of the arboreal components and soil physical characteristics, within an area that has been deforested and subsequently turned into pasture land. The experimental design was undertaken in random blocks with 5 treatments, 3 repetitions, in parcels of 50 x 60 m. The 4 systems were specific to recovery of pasture, which were: Agrosilvopastoral High Inputs (ASP1) and Agrosilvocultural Low Inputs (ASP2), Agrosilvocultural (ASC1) and Agrosilvocultural multi-strata (ASC2). In ASP1 were applied liming and P, N, K, and the remaining only phosphorous (P). The systems ASP1 and ASP2 were based on trees; ASP1 based on palm species and ASC2 with greater diversity of species. In all treatments were planted annual crops during growth phase of the arboreal species. In the ASC1, the pupunha tree produces small quantities of litter, the Colubrina presented characteristics that are desirable to the agroforestry system, such as upright growth and good wood quality. In the ASC2, the cupuaçu increased its production, given the incorporation of Ieaves and branches of the Inga plant in the pre-flowering phase. Brazil-Nut, Mahogany and Genipapo had all good development. The cultivation of Mahogany associated with other forestry species, with similar characteristics to the Inga plant, such as fast growth and high biomass production, presented smaller of insect attack (27%) Hypsipyla grandella Zeller, in the initial phase, with attacks greater occurring at heights greater then 8 m on the plant, which would allow for the possibility of sale of Iumbered wood with 6 m of Iength. Results of treatment ASP1 indicate better availability of water in soil, mainly due to this treatment be under grasses covered soil (grass land), cover crop such leguminous desmodium and arboreal leguminous trees such as Parica and Inga, wbich are responsible for the de-compactation of soil during the process of pasture recovery.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-01-05
 
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