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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.18.2017.tde-23112017-112217
Document
Author
Full name
Ulisses Costa Terin
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Paz, Lyda Patricia Sabogal (President)
Corbi, Vanessa Colombo
Vieira, Eny Maria
Title in Portuguese
Desempenho de coagulantes naturais, adsorvente alternativo e filtros lentos domiciliares no tratamento de águas com Microcystis aeruginosa e microcistina: alternativas tecnológicas para comunidades isoladas
Keywords in Portuguese
Adsorção
Cianobactérias
Cianotoxinas
Coagulação
Comunidades isoladas
Filtração lenta
Tratamento de água
Abstract in Portuguese
A combinação de coagulação/floculação/sedimentação, filtração lenta em escala domiciliar e adsorção foi ponderada como alternativa de tratamento de águas com Microcystis aeruginosa e microcistina para comunidades isoladas. As Cactáceas Opuntia cochenillifera e Opuntia ficus-indica foram estudadas como coagulantes e a espécie Luffa cylindrica foi estudada como adsorvente. Os coagulantes foram avaliados em ensaios em bancada com água contendo M. aeruginosa. O extrato de O. cochenillifera apresentou melhor desempenho por isso foi selecionado para ensaios de bancada em jarteste seguidos por filtração. Os filtros operados em regime contínuo apresentaram melhores resultados, na remoção de microcistina (75,79%), cor aparente (79,68%) e turbidez (79,15%). Entretanto, os filtros operados em regime intermitente demonstraram melhor eficiência na remoção de M. aeruginosa (96,62% - 1,985 Log). Os ensaios de adsorção mostraram que Luffa cilyndrica in natura, temperatura ambiente e pH neutro não apresentou potencial na adsorção de microcistina. Para os ensaios em escala plena, dois filtros lentos em escala domiciliar (FLD) em policloreto de polivinila (polyvinyl chloride - PVC) foram construídos tomando-se por base o modelo do Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST). Um filtro foi operado em regime contínuo e o outro em regime intermitente. O coagulante e o adsorvente não foram utilizados nessa etapa do trabalho. O filtro operado em fluxo contínuo apresentou resultados superiores para a remoção de M. aeruginosa (99,59% - 1,998 log), cor aparente (97,73%) e turbidez (84,39%). O regime de operação e o tempo de residência nos filtros não influenciaram na eficiência do tratamento. A água filtrada apresentou características em consonância com as previstas na legislação para cor aparente, porém, não para turbidez. A água filtrada apresentou concentrações de microcistina abaixo de 1,0 μg L-1 para ambos os filtros, valor máximo permitido pela Portaria MS 2914/2011 e pelas diretrizes da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Em ensaios ecotoxicológicos com Chironomus xanthus, a água filtrada não apresentou toxicidade.
Title in English
Performance of natural coagulants, alternative adsorbent and slow sand filtration at home scale in the treatment of water with Microcystis aeruginosa and microcystin: technological alternatives for isolated communities
Keywords in English
Adsorption
Coagulation
Cyanobacteria
Cyanotoxins
Isolated communities
Slow filtration
Water treatment
Abstract in English
The combination of coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, slow sand filtration at home scale and adsorption was evaluated as an alternative treatment for waters with Microcystis aeruginosa and microcystin for isolated communities. The Cactaceae Opuntia cochenillifera and Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated as coagulants and the species Luffa cylindrica was evaluated as adsorbent. The coagulants were evaluated in bench tests with a study water containing M. aeruginosa cells. O. cochenillifera extract presented better removal performance so it was selected for jartest bench tests followed by filtration. The filters operated in continuous flow showed better results in microcystin removal (75.79%), apparent color (79.68%) and turbidity (79.15%). However, the intermittent flow filters demonstrated a better removal of M. aeruginosa cells (96.62% - 1985 Log). The adsorption tests showed that the use of Luffa cylindrica fibers, at ambient temperature and neutral pH had no potential in microcystin adsorption. In full-scale trials, two PVC home scale slow sand filters were constructed based on the CAWST (Center for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology) Biosand filter model. One home scale slow sand filters was operated on a continuous flow and another on an intermittent flow. The coagulant and the adsorbent were not used at the fullscale trials. The continuous flow filter showed superior results for cyanobacteria removal (99.59% - 1.998 log), apparent color removal (97.73%) and turbidity removal (84.39%). The filters operating regime and residence time do not influenced the efficiency of the treatment. The filtered water showed characteristics in line with the legislation for apparent color, but not for turbidity. The filtered water had microcystin concentrations below 1.0 μg L-1 for the two filters, maximum value allowed by Directive 2914/2011 and by guidelines of the World Health Organization. In ecotoxicological tests with Chironomus xanthus, filtered water showed no toxicity.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-11-23
 
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