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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.17.2014.tde-21012015-092933
Document
Author
Full name
Mariana Angélica de Souza
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Sverzut, Ana Claudia Mattiello (President)
Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken
Riberto, Marcelo
Title in Portuguese
Efeito do uso da ankle-foot orthosis na biomecânica da marcha de pacientes com Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne
Keywords in Portuguese
Distrofia muscular de Duchenne
Marcha
Órtese
Abstract in Portuguese
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do uso noturno ou diurno da ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) na biomecânica da marcha de pacientes com DMD. Foram avaliados 20 pacientes deambuladores, do Ambulatório de Miopatias Infantis do CER do HCFMRP-USP, com diagnóstico de distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD), com idades entre 4 e 12 anos. Foi realizada a avaliação inicial (Av1) em todos os pacientes e, 7 pacientes foram reavaliados após 6 meses (Av2). Na Av1, os pacientes foram agrupados conforme o uso da órtese: grupo sem órtese (SO; n=7), grupo órtese noturna (ON; n=7), grupo órtese diurna (OD; n=6). Na Av1 e na Av2 foram obtidos dados de massa corporal, altura, composição corporal pela bioimpedância elétrica, escore funcional pela escala medida da função motora, amplitude passiva de movimento articular, força muscular isométrica pelo dinamômetro Handheld e avaliação biomecânica da marcha, na velocidade habitual do paciente. Os pacientes que faziam uso da órtese diurna foram avaliados sem e com órtese, sendo denominados grupos ODs e ODc, respectivamente. Os dados foram analisados de três formas: duas transversais e uma longitudinal. Nas análises transversais, foram realizados dois procedimentos: (i) comparando dados dos grupos SO x ON x ODs; (ii) comparando dados dos grupos SO x ON x ODc. Nestas, foi utilizado o teste ANOVA, considerando um nível de significância de 5%. Na análise longitudinal, foi realizada a análise descritiva comparando os dados obtidos na Av1 e Av2, individualmente para os 7 pacientes reavaliados. Transversalmente, o grupo ODc apresentou maiores picos do ângulo de dorsiflexão e do momento dorsiflexor, menor ângulo de flexão plantar e menor geração de potência de tornozelo (p<0,05) que o grupo SO. Porém, ao caminhar sem a AFO (grupo ODs) estes resultados não foram observados (p>0,05). Em relação ao grupo ON, o grupo ODc obteve menores picos do ângulo de flexão do quadril, de absorção de potência de quadril, do ângulo de flexão plantar e maior pico do momento dorsiflexor (p<0,05), sendo que ao retirar a AFO (ODs) essas diferenças não foram observadas (p>0,05). E ainda, o grupo ON obteve maior pico do ângulo de flexão do joelho e menor momento flexor de quadril (p<0,05) em relação ao grupo ON. Na comparação dos dados entre os grupos SO e ON, o grupo ON obteve maior pico do ângulo de flexão do joelho e maior absorção de potência de quadril (p<0,05). Na análise longitudinal individual foi observado que os 2 pacientes que iniciaram precocemente e mantiveram o uso noturno da AFO apresentaram na Av2 maior velocidade da marcha, maiores momentos extensor de quadril e flexor plantar e maior geração de potência de tornozelo, contrariamente aos paciente que interromperam o uso (noturno ou diurno) da AFO. Conclui-se que o uso diurno da AFO acarretou alterações positivas na biomecânica da marcha, minimizando compensações típicas da DMD na articulação do tornozelo. O uso noturno da AFO, quando iniciado precocemente, também afetou positivamente a marcha dos pacientes. Assim, sugere-se o início precoce e contínuo do uso diurno e noturno da AFO aos pacientes com DMD.
Title in English
Effect of use of ankle-foot orthosis on the gait biomechanics of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Keywords in English
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Gait
Orthosis
Abstract in English
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) during nocturnal or daytime usage of the gait biomechanics in patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Twenty ambulant patients from the Myopathies Infant Ambulatory of CER - HCFMRP-USP, were diagnosed with DMD between the ages of 4 and13 years and were evaluated. The initial evaluation (Ev1) was performed in all patients, and 7 patients were reevaluated after 6 months (Ev2). In Av1, patients were grouped according to orthosis use: group without orthosis (NoO, n = 7), group with nocturnal orthosis (NiO, n = 7), group with daytime orthosis (DO, n = 6). In Ev1 and Ev2 data were obtained according to the weight, height, body composition (bioelectrical impedance), functional score (Measure scale of motor function), passive joint range of motion, isometric muscle strength (dynamometer Handheld) and biomechanical gait analyses (usual velocity for the patient). Patients who used the daytime orthosis were evaluated with and without bracing, respectively. The data were analyzed in three ways; the first two were cross-sectional and the other one was longitudinal. In the cross-sectional analyzes, an exploratory analysis of the data from each evaluation was performed, and subsequently, the variables were compared between groups, considering the means and standard deviations. ANOVA test was used, and it was considered a significant level of 5%. In the longitudinal analysis, the description of the data obtained in the evaluation 1 compared to the data obtained in the evaluation 2 was individually performed in the 7 patients who were reevaluated. A cross-sectional analysis compared the data between NoO x NiO x DO groups considering the gait analysis data from the DO group without the orthosis (barefoot), being named DOno. The other cross-sectional analysis compared the data between NoO x NiO x DO groups considering the gait analysis data from the OD group with orthosis, being named DOwith. In individual longitudinal analysis, it was observed that patients who had started early and kept the nocturnal usage of AFO which has been already showed, in six months, an increment of gait velocity, hip extensor and plantar flexor moments and also the increment of ankle power generation, which is the opposite of the patient who has discontinued the AFO usage (daytime or nocturnal). In the cross-sectional analyzes it was observed that, compared to the NoO group, the DOwith group had a higher dorsiflexion angle peak and higher dorsiflexor moment peak (p<0.05). However, when they walked without the device these results were not maintained. There was no difference (p>0.05) between DOno and NoO groups for the kinematic parameters. And, the DOno group had lower plantar flexor moment maximum peak than the SO group (p>0.05). It was concluded that AFO daytime use cause positive changes in gait biomechanics, minimizing typical compensation of DMD in the ankle joint. The night use of AFO, when started early, also positively affected the gait of patients. Thus, it is suggested early prescription of daytime and nocturnal usage of AFO for DMD patients.
 
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Publishing Date
2015-06-10
 
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