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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.17.2017.tde-05072021-082624
Document
Author
Full name
Brígida Batista Brancaleon
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Shimano, Antonio Carlos (President)
Rosa, Rodrigo César
Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira
Volpon, José Batista
Title in Portuguese
Resposta do tecido ósseo ao treinamento de salto concêntrico, excêntrico e combinado. Estudo experimental em ossos de ratas
Keywords in Portuguese
Contração muscular
Ossos
Ratos
Treinamento
Abstract in Portuguese
O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do treinamento de queda livre com predominância de contração muscular excêntrica, concêntrica e a combinação desses dois tipos saltos, nas propriedades mecânicas e morfométricas de ossos de ratas. Foram utilizadas (n=32) trinta e duas ratas Wistar, divididas em 4 grupos (n=8). Após uma semana de adaptação ao protocolo de treinamento, os animais foram submetidos a oito semanas de treinamento com 10 saltos por dia, cinco dias na semana. O protocolo de treinamento consistiu: Grupo concêntrico (GC): 10 saltos a uma altura de 40cm; Grupo excêntrico (GE): queda livre de uma altura de 35,7cm; Grupo combinado (GCOMB): protocolo simultâneo GC + GE. Os animais do Grupo controle (GCONT) permaneceram na caixa por 9 semanas sem nenhum treinamento. Os animais foram pesados semanalmente, os dados de força máxima obtidos através da plataforma de força (PF) foram colhidos semanalmente. Após o período experimental os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia com dose letal de anestésico. Os úmeros e fêmures foram retirados e dissecados. Os ossos esquerdos foram utilizados na avaliação qualitativa em Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). Os ossos direitos foram avaliados quanto à massa (g), comprimento (mm), Densidade Mineral Óssea (DMO) (g/cm²), Força máxima (N) e Rigidez relativa (N/mm). A análise estatística foi realizada através do programa SPSS® (SPSS® IBM® Statistics) versão 20.0. Foi realizada a análise de variância (ANOVA) e pós-teste de Tukey. Para a Análise da plataforma de força utilizou-se teste de Friedman para comparar as semanas, com pós-teste de Wilcoxon, para comparação entre os grupos em cada semana foi utilizado Kruskal-Wallis e pós-teste de Dunn. Foi adotado o nível de significância de 5% (p<0,05). Ao final do experimento, o pico de força máxima aplicada a plataforma de força durante o treinamento e no decorrer do experimento apresentou resultados estatisticamente significativos para GE e GCOMB, sendo GC o grupo com menor valor. A massa corpórea dos animais de todos os grupos submetidos ao treinamento foi menor que a GCONT. A força máxima de úmero foi estatisticamente significante (p=0,016), GCOMB > GE (p=0,031) e GC (p=0,037) e GCONT > GE (p=0,031). Foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes para peso de fêmur (p=0,001), sendo: GCOMB > GE (p <0,001) e GC (p=0,025) e GCONT > GE (p=0,049). Foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes para força máxima de fêmur (p <0,005), sendo GC > GE (p <0,006). Para as fotomicrografias de úmero foi possível observar massa óssea preservada, e menor espaçamento entre as trabéculas para GCOMB, enquanto para as imagens de fêmur não foi possível observar diferenças nas trabéculas ósseas. Concluímos que o treinamento combinado gera efeitos positivos para a análise da plataforma de força, massa e força máxima de úmero em valores estatisticamente significantes e comprimento, DMO e rigidez relativa de úmero e comprimento de fêmur em valores absolutos, portanto, o treinamento de predominância combinada promoveu benefícios superiores aos ossos quando comparados com o treinamento isolado.
Title in English
Bone response to training jump, concentric, eccentric and combined. Experimental study of rat bones
Keywords in English
Bone
Muscle contraction
Rats
Training
Abstract in English
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of free fall training with predominance of eccentric or concentric muscular contraction and a combination of two types of jumps, in the mechanical and morphometric properties of rat bones. Thirty-two female Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=8). After one week of adaptation to the training protocols, the animals were submitted to eight weeks of training, performing 10 jumps per day, and five days a week. The training protocol consisted of concentric group (CG): 10 jumps at a height of 40cm; Eccentric group (EG): free fall from a height of 35.7cm; Combined group (COMBG): concurrent CG + EG protocol. Control group animals (CONTG) remained in the box for nine weeks without any training. The animals were weighed weekly and the maximum strength data obtained on the force platform (PF) were collected weekly. After the experimental period, the animals were submitted to euthanasia with a lethal dose of anesthetic. The humerus and femur were removed and dissected. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) used the left bones in the qualitative evaluation. The right bones were evaluated for mass (g), length (mm), bone mineral density (BMD) (g / cm²), maximum force (N) and relative rigidity (N / mm). Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS® program (SPSS® IBM® Statistics) version 20.0. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) one-way was performed with Tukey post-test. For the Analysis of the force platform Friedman's test was performed to compare the weeks, with Wilcoxon's post-test and for comparison between the groups in each week was used Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-test. The significance level of 5% (p <0.05) was adopted. At the end of the experiment, the maximum applied force peak (FMA), the force platform during the training, the experiment performance presented statistically significant results for EG, and COMBG, CG being the group with the lowest value. The body mass of the animals of all the groups submitted to the training was smaller than the CONTG. The maximum humerus strength was statistically significant (p = 0.016), COMBG > EG (p = 0.031) and CG (p = 0.037) and CONTG> EG (p = 0.031). Statistically significant differences were observed for femur weight (p = 0.001), being: COMBG > EG (p <0.001) and CG (p = 0.025) and CONTG > EG (p = 0.049). Statistically significant differences were observed for maximum femoral force (p <0.005), with CG > EG (p <0.006). In photomicrographs of humerus was possible to observe preserved bone mass, and a smaller spacing between trabeculae bone for COMBG, and in femoral images it was not possible to observe differences in trabeculae bone. We conclude that the combined training generates positive effects for the analysis of the force platform, mass and maximum humerus strength in statistically significant values and length, BMD and relative stiffness of humerus and femur length in absolute values, therefore, the combined predominance training. The sum of the jump up and down has promoted superior benefits to the bones when compared with the isolated training.
 
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Publishing Date
2021-07-07
 
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