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Thèse de Doctorat
DOI
10.11606/T.17.2016.tde-26082016-110343
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Ingrid de Miranda Esteves
Adresse Mail
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
Ribeirão Preto, 2016
Directeur
Jury
Leite, João Pereira (Président)
Cairasco, Norberto Garcia
Coimbra, Norberto Cysne
Rodrigues, Guilherme Gustavo Riccioppo
Tort, Adriano Bretanha Lopes
Titre en portugais
Caracterização das alterações na via hipocampo-córtex pré-frontal medial em modelo farmacológico da doença de Alzheimer
Mots-clés en portugais
Alzheimer
Estreptozotocina
LTP
Nicotina
Sinapse
Resumé en portugais
Severas altera¸c~oes no metabolismo energ´etico, no consumo de glicose e na sinaliza¸c~ao de insulina cerebral est~ao presentes na doen¸ca de Alzheimer (DA). O modelo animal da DA obtido pela administra¸c~ao intracerebroventricular de estreptozotocina (STZ-icv) em ratos induz um estado de resist^encia `a insulina no c´erebro associado `a disfun¸c~oes colin´ergicas e a d´eficits cognitivos, tornando-o um dos poucos modelos experimentais da forma espor´adica da DA. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar, neste modelo, as disfun¸c~oes sin´apticas na via hipocampo - c´ortex pr´e-frontal medial (CA1-CPFm) e testar se o tratamento com nicotina ´e capaz de prevenir as disfun¸c~oes sin´apticas e reverter os preju´?zos cognitivos induzido pelo STZ-icv. Para isso, ratos Wistar receberam STZ e foram submetidos a 20 dias de tratamento com nicotina. Dois dias depois, foram realizados nos animais teste de campo aberto e de reconhecimento de objeto. Em seguida os animais foram anestesiados com uretana para que os registros eletrofisiol´ogicos fossem realizados. Um eletrodo foi utilizado para estimular CA1 com pulso pareado e potenciais de campo p´os-sin´apticos (fPSP1) e sua facilita¸c~ao (fPSP2) foram registradas por um eletrodo no CPFm. Ap´os 30 minutos de linha de base, uma estimula¸c~ao em alta frequ^encia foi aplicada para induzir a potencia¸c~ao de longa dura¸c~ao (LTP), seguido de mais quatro horas de registro. Outro grupo experimental foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de longo prazo da STZ-icv e do tratamento com nicotina. Neste grupo, testes comportamentais e eletrofisiol´ogicos foram realizados 60 dias ap´os o fim do tratamento. Independentemente do tempo, os resultados indicam que a STZ produziu uma redu¸c~ao na indu¸c~ao e na manuten¸c~ao da LTP, mas a facilita¸c~ao por pulso pareado (PPF = fPSP2 / fPSP1) mostra que a STZ prejudica a plasticidade pr´e-sin´aptica apenas a curto prazo. O tratamento com nicotina atenua a disfun¸c~ao na LTP induzida pela STZ. Al´em disso, apenas o tratamento de nicotina tamb´em ´e capaz de reduzir a plasticidade pr´e-sin´aptica no grupo controle dois dias ap´os o fim do tratamento. Estes resultados tamb´em est~ao associados com os dados comportamentais, uma vez que a nicotina reverteu os d´eficits de mem´oria de reconhecimento nos animais STZ mas manteve o comportamento explorat´orio reduzido. Sugerimos com isso que o sistema colin´ergico, que desempenha um papel importante em fun¸c~oes cognitivas e na LTP, est´a afetado nos animais injetados com STZ e o tratamento cr^onico com nicotina consegue reduzir os danos na plasticidade sin´aptica e comportamentais, induzidos pela STZ.
Titre en anglais
Characterization of changes in the medial prefrontal cortexhippocampal pathway in a pharmacological model of Alzheimer's disease
Mots-clés en anglais
Alzheimer
LTP
Nicotine
Streptozotocine
Synapse
Resumé en anglais
Severe abnormalities in brain glucose/energy metabolism and insulin signaling have been documented to play an important role in early stage of alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Intracerebroventricular administration (icv) of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats can induce an insulin-resistant brain state associated with cholinergic dysfunctions and memory impairments, which make it a suitable experimental model of the sporadic form of AD. The present work aimed to extend the characterization of this model by probing synaptic plasticity dysfunctions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)- hippocampal (CA1) pathway and test if nicotine can prevent synaptic dysfunction and revert cognitive impairment induced by icv STZ. Here, Wistar rats received bilateral microinjection of STZ and were submitted to 20 days of nicotine treatment. After 2 days of withdrawing the subjects were submitted to open field and object recognition tests. After that, animals were anesthetized with urethane for electrophysiological tests. A twisted bipolar electrode was used to stimulate posterior-dorsal hippocampus (CA1/subiculum) with paired-pulse. Basal field post-synaptic potentials (fPSP1) and facilitated responses (fPSP2) were recorded by a monopolar electrode in the medial mPFC. After 30min of baseline, high frequency stimulation was applied to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) and additional four hours of electrophysiological recordings was performed. Another experimental group was performed to evaluate the long term effect of both icv STZ and nicotine treatment. In this group behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed with 60 days after chronic treatment. Independently of time, our results indicate that STZ produced a significant decrease in the induction and maintenance of LTP, but paired pulse facilitation (PPF = fPSP2/fPSP1) shows that only the short-term pre-synaptic plasticity was impaired after STZ injection. The nicotine treatment attenuates the STZ-induced LTP dysfunction in the CA1-mPFC pathway. However, just the nicotine treatment (in control group) can reduce pre-synaptic plasticity two days after chronic treatment. These results are also associated with behavioral data, since nicotine treatment reversed the deficits in recognition memory of STZ animals but maintained the reduced exploratory behavior. We suggest that the brain cholinergic system, which plays a role in cognition function and LTP, is affected in STZ injected animals and chronic treatment with nicotine can attenuate the STZ-induced synaptic plasticity and behavioral dysfunctions.
 
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Date de Publication
2016-10-24
 
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