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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.17.2016.tde-02122015-101322
Document
Author
Full name
Karina Alves da Silva Vasconcelos
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Silva Junior, Wilson Araújo da (President)
Castro, Margaret de
Orellana, Maristela Delgado
Santos, Jose Ernesto dos
Zanette, Dalila Lucíola
Title in Portuguese
Identificação de mutações no gene do receptor da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDLR) em pacientes com hipercolesterolemia familiar
Keywords in Portuguese
Estudos funcionais
Hipercolesterolemia familiar
LDLR
Mutações
Patogenicidade
Abstract in Portuguese
Hipercolesterolemia familiar (HF) é uma doença autossômica dominante, caracterizada por elevados níveis plasmáticos da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL), desenvolvimento de xantoma tendíneo e arco corneal, além do aumento do risco de doença coronariana e acidente vascular cerebral prematuros. Frequentemente subdiagnosticada, estima-se que apenas 10% dos 400.000 indivíduos com HF no Brasil têm conhecimento da própria doença; afetando, desta forma, a qualidade e a expetativa de vida dos pacientes. Mutações no gene do receptor da LDL (LDLR) são consideradas as alterações genéticas mais frequentes para o desenvolvimento da hipercolesterolemia familiar, pois comprometem a capacidade de remoção das partículas de LDL circulantes, promovendo seu aumento em níveis plasmáticos. Já foram descritas mais de 1600 mutações diferentes no gene LDLR associadas ao fenótipo da HF; entretanto, ainda é difícil determinar em muitas delas o efeito deletério na atividade do receptor. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar e caracterizar funcionalmente mutações no gene LDLR não descritas na literatura para determinar sua patogenicidade na hipercolesterolemia familiar. Foi avaliada a atividade residual de LDLR através da captação de LDL marcado com fluoróforo lipofílico em cultura de linfócitos T dos pacientes portadores das mutações analisadas após estimulação dos linfócitos T por mitógenos específicos. As mutações Cys82Ser, Thr404Ser, Gly529Arg e His285Tyr foram consideradas patogênicas por acarretarem diminuição da atividade residual do receptor de LDL. As mutações Glu 602X e His388ProfsX53 confirmaram sua patogenicidade e podem ser considerados como controle positivo para futuros ensaios funcionais. Estudos que esclareçam os mecanismos moleculares da HF e da relação genótipo/fenótipo abrem perspectivas para o desenvolvimento de terapias mais específicas na redução dos níveis de colesterol e, consequentemente, da morbidade e mortalidade associadas às doenças cardiovasculares.
Title in English
Identification of mutation in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) in familial hypercholesterolemia patients
Keywords in English
Familial hypercholesterolemia
Functional studies
LDLR mutations
Pathogenicity
Abstract in English
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and development of corneal arcus tendinous xanthoma, and increased risk of coronary heart disease and premature stroke. Often misdiagnosed, it is estimated that only 10% of the 400.000 patients with FH in Brazil has knowledge of the disease itself, affecting in this way the quality and life expectancy of patients. Mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) are considered the most frequent genetic alterations for the development of familial hypercholesterolemia because compromise the ability of removal of circulating LDL particles, promoting its increase in plasma levels. Have been described over 1600 different mutations in the LDLR gene associated with the phenotype of FH, however, it is still difficult to determine in many of the deleterious effects on receptor activity. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in the LDLR gene and functionally characterize mutations not described in the literature to determine its pathogenicity in familial hypercholesterolemia. The residual activity of LDLR was evaluated by raising LDL labeled with lipophilic fluorophore in cultured T lymphocytes of patients with the analyzed mutations after stimulation of T lymphocytes by specific mitogen. The substitution mutations Cys82Ser, Thr404Ser, Gly529Arg e His285Tyr were considered pathogenic because it causes decrease of the residual activity of the LDL receptor in T lymphocytes. The His388ProfsX53 and Glu602X mutations confirmed their pathogenicity and can be considered as positive control for future functional assays. Studies to clarify the molecular mechanisms of HF and genotype/ phenotype open perspectives for the development of more specific therapies for reducing cholesterol levels, and therefore the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-01-25
 
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