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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.17.2018.tde-10042018-140525
Document
Author
Full name
Elaine Mara Lourenço
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Tucci Junior, Silvio (President)
Boscolo, Adriana Cartafina Perez
Ciampo, Luiz Antonio Del
Title in Portuguese
Análise retrospectiva do tratamento clínico e cirúrgico de pacientes portadores de válvula de uretra posterior
Keywords in Portuguese
Doença renal crônica
Obstrução urinária
Válvula de uretra posterior
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: Dentre as anomalias congênitas obstrutivas do trato urinário a Válvula de Uretra Posterior (VUP) apresenta elevado risco para a sobrevida do recém-nascido e é a causa mais comum de doença renal crônica terminal na infância. Seu tratamento envolve múltiplas especialidades e necessita seguimento no longo prazo. Com esses aspectos torna-se imperativo a permanente reavaliação de condutas. Objetivo: Descrever os aspectos clínicos e evolutivos dos pacientes portadores de Válvula de Uretra Posterior buscando avaliar a necessidade de adequações ao protocolo de atendimento. Casuística e Métodos: Constituída por 68 pacientes portadores de VUP atendidos no HCFMRP-USP no período entre 1990 e 2015. Foram revistos os dados relativos ao nascimento, encaminhamento, exames complementares, cirurgias realizadas e evolução clínica. Resultados: houve predomínio da raça branca (76,5%) e procedentes da DRS XIII (82,4%). A maioria das crianças vieram encaminhadas de outros hospitais (80,9%), alguns já submetidos à derivação urinária. Quanto à idade ao encaminhamento, 52,7% chegaram após o primeiro ano de vida embora o diagnóstico tenha sido feito em 76,5% antes do primeiro ano. Avaliação ultrassonográfica pré-natal foi realizada em 40 gestantes (48,8%) e oligoâmnio observado em16/40 (40,0%). Dentre os exames complementares para diagnóstico e seguimento ambulatorial ressaltamos a urografia excretora (16,2%), cintilografia renal (70,6%) e renograma (29,4%). Uretrocistografia foi realizada em todos os pacientes. Quanto aos principais procedimentos, derivação vesico-amniótica intrauterina foi realizada em 3 pacientes, cateterismo vesical de demora em 20, derivação alta em 4 pacientes, vesicostomia em 33, ressecção parcial do colo vesical em 9 e cauterização da VUP em 67. Dez pacientes foram transplantados. Discussão e Conclusões: os resultados apresentados são comparáveis àqueles divulgados na literatura pelas melhores instituições quanto ao diagnóstico, procedimentos cirúrgicos e evolução. O que fica evidente são as condições sócioeconômicas e culturais do nosso País onde a obtenção de melhores resultados terapêuticos tropeça em questões sociais e educacionais, necessitando de ações conjuntas visando educação continuada e organização social. Exame pré-natal adequado, diagnóstico precoce e rápido encaminhamento a centros que possam absorver estes pacientes são cruciais para a melhor evolução clínica. O protocolo mínimo de assistência deve ser objeto de difusão aos profissionais de saúde de diferentes especialidades visando o reconhecimento do quadro clínico. É desejável a inclusão, no protocolo de atendimento, de exames laboratoriais com capacidade prognóstica relacionada à evolução para doença renal crônica.
Title in English
Retrospective analysis of clinical and surgical treatment of Posterior Urethral Valves
Keywords in English
Cronic kidney disease
Obstructive uropathy
Posterior urethral valves
Abstract in English
Introduction: Among congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, the posterior urethral valve (PUV) has a high risk for newborn´s mortality and is the most frequent cause of terminal chronic kidney disease in children. Its treatment involves multidisciplinary approach and long-term follow-up is necessary. Therefore, it is mandatory to permanently re-evaluate conducts. Objective: To describe the clinical and evolutive aspects of patients with PUV, aiming to evaluate the need for care protocol adjustments. Patients and Methods: The records of 68 boys with PUV who were treated at HCFMRP-USP between 1990 and 2015 have been reviewed. The data analyzed consisted of information regarding birth, age at referral, complementary exams, surgeries and clinical evolution. Results: There was a predominance of Caucasian (76.4%) and patients have been referred from region DRS XIII (82.4%). Most of the children have already been referred from other hospitals (80.8%), and some of them were already submitted to urinary diversion. Regarding the age of referral, 52.7% arrived after the first year of life, although the children were diagnosed before the first year of life in 70,6% of the cases. Prenatal ultrasound evaluation has been performed in 40 pregnant women (48.8%) and oligohydramnios was found in 16/40 (40,0%). Concerning the complementary exams for diagnosis and outpatient follow-up we highlighted excretory urography (16.2%), renal scintigraphy (70,6%) and renogram (29,4%). Voiding cistourethrography was performed in all patients. Regarding the main procedures, intrauterine vesico-amniotic shunt was performed in 3 patients, temporary drainage of urinary tract with vesical catheterization in 20, higher diversion in 4 patients, vesicostomy in 33, partial resection of the bladder neck in 9 and ablation during cystoscopy of the VUP in 67 patients. Ten patients were submitted to transplantation. Discussion and Conclusions: the results presented are comparable to those published in the literature by the best institutions regarding diagnosis, surgical procedures and patient evolution. What has become evident are the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of our country, where obtaining better therapeutic results stumbles on social and educational issues, requiring joint actions aimed continuing education and social organization. Proper prenatal examination, early diagnosis and early referral to institutions that can absorb these patients are crucial for the best clinical outcome. The minimum protocol of assistance should be disseminated to health professionals of different specialties in order to recognize the clinical picture. It is desirable to include, in the attendance protocol, laboratory tests with prognostic capabilities regarding evolution to chronic kidney disease.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-07-19
 
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