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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.17.2017.tde-04012017-094931
Document
Author
Full name
Carla da Silva Machado
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Antunes, Lusania Maria Greggi (President)
Andrade, Vanessa Moraes de
Pereira, Tiago Campos
Spanó, Mário Antonio
Takahashi, Catarina Satie
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação da instabilidade genômica, estresse oxidativo e modulação da expressão gênica pela vitamina D em modelo de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos
Keywords in Portuguese
Colecalciferol
Dano ao DNA
Expressão gênica
Hipertensão
Nutrigenômica
Abstract in Portuguese
A vitamina D3 é um micronutriente obtido da dieta ou pela conversão do 7- dehidrocolesterol na epiderme após exposição à radiação UVB. A vitamina D (D2 ou D3) atua sobre o sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona, e sua deficiência vem sendo associada ao desenvolvimento da hipertensão. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação ou deficiência de vitamina D3 em ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR - spontaneously hypertensive rats) e seus controles normotensos (Wistar Kyoto - WKY) sobre a pressão arterial sistólica, danos ao DNA e cromossomos, marcadores bioquímicos do estresse oxidativo, burst oxidativo dos neutrófilos, análise de fibrose no rim e perfil de expressão de genes relacionados com a hipertensão arterial no rim e coração. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta controle (1.000 UI/kg), suplementada (10.000 UI/kg) ou deficiente (0 UI/kg) em vitamina D3 ao longo de 12 semanas. A quantificação plasmática de vitamina D3 foi avaliada pelo método ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) e a pressão arterial sistólica foi aferida semanalmente, por método não invasivo de pletismografia da artéria caudal. Os danos ao material genético foram avaliados pelo ensaio do cometa nas células do sangue periférico, rim e coração e pelo teste do micronúcleo nos eritrócitos da medula óssea e sangue periférico; o estresse oxidativo foi avaliado pelos ensaios de quantificação das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS - Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances) e glutationa (GSH) no rim e coração; o burst oxidativo em neutrófilos do sangue periférico; a quantificação de fibrose por histologia renal e a expressão gênica por RT2 ProfilerTM PCR Arrays no rim e coração. Os resultados obtidos com os ratos SHR mostraram que a suplementação com vitamina D3 reduziu a pressão arterial sistólica, não induziu danos ao DNA e aos cromossomos, estresse oxidativo ou fibrose renal, e regulou a expressão de quatro genes envolvidos com a hipertensão arterial no rim (Ace, Agt, Ren e Edn1) e cinco genes no coração (Ace, Avp, Ephx2, Mylk3 e Ren). A deficiência em vitamina D3 aumentou a pressão arterial sistólica, os danos ao DNA e aos cromossomos, a peroxidação lipídica no rim e coração, o burst oxidativo dos neutrófilos, o percentual de fibrose no rim, e a expressão de treze genes envolvidos com a hipertensão arterial no rim (Ace, Acta2, Agt, Agtr1a, Agtr1b, Alox5, Cacna1c, Ece1, Ednra, Kcnma1, P2rx4, Scnn1g e Slc7a1) e nove genes no coração (Ace, Agtr1b, Cacna1c, Drd5, Mylk2, Nostrin, Scnn1a, Scnn1g e Sphk1). Nos animais WKY, a dieta suplementada alterou a expressão do gene Ren no rim e de dez genes no coração (Ace2, Bdkrb2, Drd3, Drd5, Itpr1, Itpr2, Itpr3, Ptgs1, Scnn1a e Scnn1g); e a dieta deficiente em vitamina D3 aumentou os danos ao DNA nos eritrócitos, induziu fibrose no rim e alterou a expressão de três genes no rim (Ace, Cps1 e Arg2) e de seis genes no coração (Ace, Cacna1c, Edrna, Ephx2, Itpr1 e Itpr2). Nos parâmetros pressão arterial sistólica, danos aos cromossomos, peroxidação lipídica e burst oxidativo, os ratos WKY alimentados com as dietas suplementada ou deficiente em vitamina D3 não diferiram em relação aos animais que receberam a dieta controle. Em conclusão, a variação da concentração de vitamina D3 da dieta alterou a fisiologia da hipertensão arterial, atuando como um anti-hipertensivo na suplementação e agravando os efeitos da hipertensão na deficiência.
Title in English
Evaluation of genomic instability, oxidative stress and modulation of gene expression by vitamin D in a model of spontaneously hypertensive rats
Keywords in English
Cholecalciferol
DNA damage
Gene expression
Hypertension
Nutrigenomics
Abstract in English
Vitamin D3 is a micronutrient obtained from diet or by conversion of 7- dehydrocholesterol in the skin after exposure to UVB radiation. Vitamin D (D2 or D3) acts on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and its deficiency has been associated with hypertension development. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation or deficiency in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR - spontaneously hypertensive rats) and their normotensive controls (Wistar Kyoto - WKY) on systolic blood pressure, DNA and chromosomes damage, biochemical markers of oxidative stress, oxidative burst in neutrophils, renal fibrosis and the gene expression profile of genes related to hypertension in kidney and heart. The rats were fed a vitamin D3 control diet (1,000 IU/kg) supplemented diet (10,000 IU/kg) or deficient diet (0 IU / kg) during 12 weeks. Vitamin D3 plasma quantification was performed by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) technique and systolic blood pressure was measured weekly by noninvasive plethysmography of the caudal artery. DNA and chromosomal damage was evaluated by the comet assay in the peripheral blood, kidney and heart cells and by the micronucleus test in erythrocytes from bone marrow and peripheral blood; oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GHS) assays in kidney and heart; oxidative burst in neutrophils of peripheral blood; renal fibrosis by histology and gene expression by RT2 ProfilerTM PCR Arrays in kidney and heart. The results obtained for SHR rats showed that vitamin D3 supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure, did not induced DNA or chromosomal damage, oxidative stress or renal fibrosis, and regulated the expression of four genes involved with hypertension in the kidney (Ace, Agt, Ren and Edn1) and five genes in the heart (Ace, Avp, Ephx2, Mylk3 and Ren). Vitamin D3 deficiency increased systolic blood pressure, DNA damage in erythrocytes, lipid peroxidation in kidney and heart, oxidative burst in neutrophils and the renal fibrosis, and regulates the expression of thirteen genes involved with hypertension in kidney (Ace, Acta2, Agt, Agtr1a, Agtr1b, Alox5, Cacna1c, Ece1, Ednra, Kcnma1, P2rx4, Scnn1g and Slc7a1) and nine genes in heart (Ace, Agtr1b, Cacna1c, Drd5, Mylk2, Nostrin, Scnn1a, Scnn1g and Sphk1). In WKY rats, vitamin D3 supplementation altered the expression of Ren gene in the kidney and of ten genes in the heart (Ace2, Bdkrb2, Drd3, Drd5, Itpr1, Itpr2, Itpr3, Ptgs1, Scnn1a and Scnn1g); and vitamin D3 deficiency increased DNA damage in erythrocytes and renal fibrosis, and altered the expression of three genes in the kidney (Ace, Cps1 and Arg2) and six genes in the heart (Ace, Cacna, Ednra, Ephx2, Itpr1 and Itpr2). In the parameters systolic blood pressure, chromosomal damage, lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, WKY rats fed with vitamin D3 supplemented or deficient diet did not differ compared to rats that received vitamin D3 control diet. In conclusion, the variation of dietary vitamin D3 levels altered the physiology of hypertension, acting as an antihypertensive in supplementation and aggravating the hypertension effects in its deficiency.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-04-04
 
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  • MACHADO, C. S., et al. Reduction of blood pressure and oxidative damage after vitamin D3 supplementation in spontaneously hipertensive rats. In 2nd Ibero-American Meeting on Toxicology and Environmental Health, Ribeirão Preto-SP, 2013. Book of Abstracts of 2nd Ibero-American Meeting on Toxicology and Environmental Health., 2013. Abstract.
  • MACHADO, C. S., et al. Vitamin D3 deficiency increases genomic instability and oxidative burst in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In 4th Brazilian Conference on Natural Products, Ribeirão Preto-SP, 2013. Anais do 4th Brazilian Conference on Natural Products., 2013. Abstract.
  • MACHADO, C. S., et al. Vitamin D3 supplementation decreases blood pressure without causing genomic instability in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In III Workshop do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética, Ribeirão Preto-SP, 2012. Anais do III Workshop do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética., 2012. Abstract. Available from: http://www.fmrp.usp.br.
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