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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.16.2011.tde-26012012-155305
Document
Author
Full name
Iara Pierro de Camargo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Costa, Carlos Roberto Zibel (President)
Bomeny, Maria Helena Werneck
Farias, Priscila Lena
Title in Portuguese
O Departamento de Design Gráfico da Cranbrook Academy of Art (1971-1995): novos caminhos para o design
Keywords in Portuguese
Cranbrook Academy of Art
Design pós-moderno
Ensino do design gráfico
História do design gráfico
Linguagem visual
Pós-estruturalismo
Abstract in Portuguese
A partir da análise dos trabalhos do departamento de design da Cranbrook Academy of Art, durante o período coordenado por Katherine McCoy (1971 a 1995), este trabalho procura identificar os novos caminhos desenvolvidos pela escola para a prática do design gráfico contemporâneo, e em especial a concepção do design como parte do processo de comunicação. O design até os anos 1970 era regido por pressupostos formais, funcionais e neutros, o que talvez não permitisse entendê-lo como linguagem visual, em si, mas como mero suporte para o texto. Na escola, a abordagem funcionalista foi questionada nos anos 1970 e, a partir daí, nos anos 1980, inspirados por conceitos teóricos do pós-estruturalismo e pós-modernismo, foram introduzidas novas ideias a fim de legitimar o designer também como produtor de conteúdo. Ao buscar referências teóricas no pós-estruturalismo, percebeu-se a importância do receptor na interpretação da mensagem, assim como a necessidade de se produzir peças gráficas que encorajassem, a partir da relação do conteúdo com a forma gráfica, a participação do público. A escola, de modestas proporções, cuja média era a de 8 alunos ingressantes por ano, era baseada no ensino em estúdio, não possuía grade curricular fixa, nem disciplinas regulares. Os discentes eram sempre encorajados a pesquisar e se desenvolver. Muitas das pesquisas e resultados dos trabalhos são frutos da reflexão individual de cada aluno, inspirados pelo ambiente em contínuo desenvolvimento. A Cranbrook foi, dessa maneira, formadora de muitos dos principais designers norteamericanos atuais, como por exemplo Allen Hori, Andrew Bleauvelt, David Frej, David Shields, Ed Fella, Elliot Earls, Geoff Kaplan, Jane Kosstrin, Jeff Keedy, Kimberly Elam, Laurie Haycock Makela, Loraine Wild, Lucille Tenazas, Martin Venezky, Meredith Davis, Michael Carrabeta, Nancy Skolos, Richard Kerr, Robert Nakata, Scott Makela (1960-1999), Scott Santoro, Scott Zukowsky, entre outros. Cada um deles possuiu um papel particular e muitos compartilhavam idéias semelhantes, mas a maior parte deles procurou ampliar o campo do design gráfico agregando conteúdos mistos e abrindo-se a novas possibilidades de produção e reflexão sobre a relação entre texto e imagem.
Title in English
The Cranbrook Academy of Art´s Graphic Design Department (1971-1995): new paths for design.
Keywords in English
Cranbrook Academy of Art
History of graphic design
Post-modern design
Post-structuralism
Teaching of graphic design
Visual language
Abstract in English
With the analysis of the works from Cranbrook Academy of Art´s Design Department, under Katherine McCoy's Co-Chairmanship (1971 to 1995), this work intends identify the new ways developed by the School for the practice of contemporary graphic design, focusing on the concept of the design as part of communication process. Until the years 1970 design was ruled from the formal, functional and neutral presuppositions of Modernity, without the understanding of design as a visual language itself, but only as a mere support the text. In the 1970's the School questioned the functionalist approach, and during the 1980's years, new ideas were introduced to legitimate the designer as producer of contents, inspired by post-structuralism and post-modern concepts. Theoretical references in post structuralism stressed the importance of the receptor's interpretation of the message, as well in the importance of producing graphic works that encourage the participation from the public audience, founded in the relationship between content and graphic form. The School's graphic design program was modest in size 8 new students per year - and was studio-based without a fixed curriculum of courses and classes. The students were challenged to research and develop their individual expressions. Their research and resulting works are the fruit of the students' individual reflection inspired by the continuously developing environment. Cranbrook produced many of the most important contemporary North American designers, such as Allen Hori, Andrew Bleauvelt, David Frej, David Shields, Ed Fella, Elliot Earls, Geoff Kaplan, Jane Kosstrin, Jeff Keedy, Kimberly Elam, Laurie Haycock Makela, Lorraine Wild, Lucille Tenazas, Martin Venezky, Meredith Davis, Michael Carrabeta, Nancy Skolos, Richard Kerr, Robert Nakata, Scott Makela (1960-1999), Scott Santoro, Scott Zukowsky, and others. Each one had a particular role play and many shared similar ideas, as they worked to enlarge the graphic design field with mixed contents and explored new possibilities of production and new roles for text and image.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-04-17
 
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