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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.16.2011.tde-13012012-140118
Document
Author
Full name
Maria Luiza de Freitas
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Segawa, Hugo Massaki (President)
Lopes, João Marcos de Almeida
Conduru, Roberto Luís Torres
Gitahy, Maria Lucia Caira
Pereira, Margareth da Silva
Title in Portuguese
Modernidade concreta: as grandes construtoras e o concreto armado no Brasil, 1920 a 1940
Keywords in Portuguese
Argentina
Arquitetura moderna
Brasil
Concreto armado
Grandes construtoras
História do concreto armado
Modernidade
Abstract in Portuguese
Investiga-se através da atuação de grandes firmas construtoras no Brasil o desenvolvimento de novos sistemas construtivos, em particular do concreto armado, como um dos fatores protagonistas da modernização da arquitetura entre 1922 e 1937. Intenta-se examinar os diversos programas construtivos, através da premissa da técnica, e suas inferências na realização arquitetônica. Busca-se tomar conhecimento de uma práxis calcada na verdade construtiva e no diálogo entre o arquiteto e o engenheiro. Parte-se do entendimento de novo fenômeno que interferiu na forma de projetar a arquitetura, alterando sua concepção e provocando a cisão entre a técnica e a arte. A modernização urbana teve como características: a concentração das principais atividades modernas nos núcleos urbanos, a reforma dos espaços das cidades para adequá-las aos novos labores e a mudança da percepção ambiental através de novos meios de comunicação, transporte e infraestrutura. A fundamentação desse cenário permite nos abarcar o processo de inserção das construtoras estrangeiras no Brasil. Para tanto, pretende-se compreender a constituição do conhecimento sobre o concreto armado seja no âmbito da engenharia brasileira, seja na da arquitetura. Sabe- se que três temas correntes faziam parte do repertório dessa cultura técnica: a racionalidade, o uso diferenciado dos sistemas modernos de construção e a criação de novas formas. Essas firmas especializadas no sistema construtivo eram verdadeiros campos de experimentação e, consequentemente, de formação de profissionais capazes de criar nova estética advinda da técnica. A atuação de alguns desses profissionais vem sendo tratada por outros trabalhos, mas uma lacuna permanece: o papel das empresas construtoras na modernização da arquitetura brasileira. Com base no estudo de acervos, como o da construtora de origem dinamarquesa Christiani & Nielsen e de empresas construtoras de origem alemãs atuantes na Argentina e no Brasil, esta tese incorpora, além dos objetivos já revelados, também a identificação de profissionais da construção pouco reconhecidos e suas ações nas atitudes modernizadoras do Brasil do século 20.
Title in English
Concrete modernity: the largest construction companies and the reinforced concrete in Brazil, 1920 a 1940
Keywords in English
Brazil
Construction companies
Modern architecture
Modernity
Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete history
Abstract in English
It has been investigated, through the performance of the largest construction companies in Brazil, the development of new building systems, particularly of the reinforced concrete, as a major contributing factor for the modernization of architecture between 1920 and 1940. The objective is to analyze the various construction programs, their technical premises, and their interferences in the architectural achievement, seeking the awareness of a practice based on the constructive truth and on the dialogue between architect and engineer. The starting point is the understanding of a new phenomenon, which has interfered in the way of designing the architecture, changing its notion, and inducing the division between technology and art. The urban modernization had as characteristics: the concentration of the main modern activities in the urban core, the restructure of city spaces to fit them to new labors and changes in environmental perception through the new media, transportation, and infrastructure. The fundamental principals of this scenario allow us to embrace the process of insertion of foreign construction companies in Brazil. For this, the intention is to understand the nature of the knowledge about reinforced concrete in the scope of either, Brazilian engineering or architecture. It is known that three current themes were part of the repertoire of this technical culture: the rationale, the differential use of modern building systems, and the creation of new forms. These specialized firms in the building system were real fields for experimentation and, consequently, of formation of professionals capable of creating a new aesthetic emerged from the technique. The performance of some of these professionals has already been addressed by other works, but a gap remains: the role of construction companies in the modernization of Brazilian architecture. Based on studies of collections, such as the one from Danish contractor Christiani & Nielsen, and construction companies originated in Germany and operating in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil, this thesis includes, besides the already revealed objectives, the identification of construction professionals barely recognized, and their actions towards the attitudes for Brazilian modernization in the 20th century.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-02-09
 
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