Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.14.2010.tde-27062013-093633
Document
Author
Full name
Eduardo Wilde Bárbaro
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Oliveira, Amauri Pereira de (President)
Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de
Title in Portuguese
Investigação da camada limite planetária noturna na região metropolitana de São Paulo utilizando o modelo LES
Keywords in Portuguese
Modelo LES
Região Metropolitana de São Paulo
Abstract in Portuguese
Title in English
Investigation of the nocturnal boundary layer in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo
Keywords in English
LES model
Metropolitan
Nocturnal Boundary layer
Abstract in English
The main objective of this work is to investigate the temporal and spatial evolutions of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the city of São Paulo during the nighttime period, using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. It was simulated the 3-dimensional fields of the three components of the wind speed, potential temperature and carbon monoxide concentration. Three properties of nocturnal PBL were investigated: a) PBL depth; b) Low level jet (LLJ) and c) Turbulent dispersion of CO. The diurnal evolution of the turbulent fluxes of sensible heat and CO was also analyzed. Initially, a validation procedure was carried considering the performance of LES model in to simulate the behavior of the PBL for convective, neutral and stable conditions using as reference simulation results available in the literature. The validation was performed by comparing the mean vertical profiles of horizontal wind, potential temperature, variance of wind speed components and the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation components. They indicated that the actual version of LES model is capable to simulate the entire cycle of the PBL diurnal evolution over a homogeneous and flat surface. Once validated, the LES model was applied to simulate the PBL for a complete diurnal cycle over a flat and homogeneous surface with aerodynamic roughness length representative of a typical urban area of São Paulo. Four simulations were designed to investigate the nighttime PBL evolution for winter conditions in São Paulo, using as input, monthly average hourly values of potential temperature and monoxide carbon observed at the surface during June in São Paulo. The mean condition for clear sky days observed in June in São Paulo was also considered as input in these simulations. The impact of wind intensity was also analyzed by considering as the external forcing in these simulations a constant background geostrophic wind of $5$ and $10 ms^{-1}$ from West. The dataset used in this work was observed in the micrometeorological platform of IAG (air temperature and sensible heat flux) and at the surface station of environmental agency of the state of São Paulo (CETESB) locate at Lapa (CO and wind speed). The results indicate that the height of stable PBL was simulated consistently with the boundary conditions and external forcing, indicating that during June the in São Paulo the PBL height may vary from 100m (mean condition) and 62m (clear days condition) at the beginning of the night to 275m (mean condition) and 203m (clear sky conditions) at the end of nighttime. It was verified that the turbulence in the Stable PBL is maintained by the mechanical production of TKE and dissipated, mainly, by the negative thermal production. Molecular dissipation has a secondary role and turbulent transport of TKE does not affect the stable PBL. All the empirical formulations used here reproduced the order of magnitude of the stable PBL height. The best performance was obtained by $h = 700 u_*$ and $h = 0.5 \sqrt{\frac{u_* L}{\left|fight|}}$. The simulated nocturnal LLJ indicated that for São Paulo the inertial oscillation yields a maximum intensity is $7.1 ms^{-1}$ at $210m$ and 05:30LT (forcing of $5 ms^{-1}$) and $14.5 ms^{-1}$ at $420m$ at 05:30LT (forcing of $10 ms^{-1}$). In both cases the LLJ intensified the turbulence at the top of the stable PBL. The simulated spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon monoxide concentration shows a pattern of turbulent dispersion consistent with the expected one for winter time in the city of São Paulo. Finally, LES model is able to reproduce the main features of the diurnal evolution of turbulent sensible heat and carbon monoxide fluxes at the surface for São Paulo during the winter.