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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.12.2005.tde-24022006-123145
Document
Author
Full name
Fernando Martinson Ruiz
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2005
Supervisor
Committee
Marcovitch, Jacques (President)
Guimarães, Edson Peterli
Martinelli, Dante Pinheiro
Title in Portuguese
Exportações brasileiras: fatores explicativos da participação das micro e pequenas empresas (MPE)
Keywords in Portuguese
barreiras
exportação
motivações
pequenas empresas
Abstract in Portuguese
As micro e pequenas empresas (MPEs), foco desta pesquisa, apresentam características peculiares em comparação às empresas de maior porte. O número de MPEs brasileiras, industriais e exportadoras vem aumentando nos últimos anos, assim como a continuidade de suas atividades exportadoras, configurando um novo panorama para este tipo de empresas. A participação destas empresas no volume de exportação total do país ainda é muito pequena (aproximadamente 2,4%, em 2003), para padrões internacionais (SEBRAE, 2004). MPEs buscam mercados distintos daqueles procurados pelas empresas de maior porte. Esta pesquisa aborda os fatores (obstáculos e motivações) explicativos da participação das empresas de menor porte nas atividades de exportação brasileiras. Para tal, foram analisados dados secundários e primários no intuito de realizar-se uma triangulação destes dados e chegar-se aos resultados e conclusões. Os dados primários foram obtidos através de uma survey e de entrevistas em profundidade com micro e pequenos empresários de MPEs que exportam. Os resultados mostram que as MPEs são mais motivadas, na exportação, por fatores conjunturais como melhores preços e escoamento de excedentes, apesar de as pequenas empresas começarem a ser incentivadas por fatores de longo prazo (como, por exemplo, aprendizado com clientes e concorrentes externos). Quanto aos obstáculos, a pesquisa demonstrou que para os micro e pequenos empresários as barreiras ambientais como política cambial, excesso de burocracia e dificuldades logísticas são os principais entraves nas exportações das MPEs. Os esforços de entidades públicas e privadas e das próprias MPEs para elevar as exportações também são analisados neste trabalho.
Title in English
Brazilian exports: factors which explain the participation of small companies
Keywords in English
barriers
exports
motivation
small companies
Abstract in English
Despite its apparent simplicity, exportation has been deeply studied in the last decades and researchers have not yet come to a consensus. The literature cannot yet explain why some firms succeed while others fail to export and how the perception of motivations and barriers varies amongst different types of firms. This thesis focuses on small companies, which probably face more barriers and perceive less advantages and motivations to export than bigger and more established companies, resulting in a mere 2,4% contribution to Brazilian foreign trade. Firstly, It was studied the barriers and motivations that have influence on exports. A survey was carried out with executives of small firms and the factors (motivations and barriers) were ranked based on the perception of importance of each one. Secondly, it was tested whether the relative score given by respondents varies according to industry, target market, frequency of exports, international experience and entry mode. The results show that small firms are usually motivated by short term incentives like better prices or international sales of production surplus. Nevertheless, some firms start to be motivated by long term incentives like learning with foreign clients and competitors. Disadvantageous currency policy, high level of bureaucracy and poor transportation infrastructure are considered the strongest barriers. These findings suggest that both public and private social action is required. It is described in this document some actions in course.
 
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FernandoRuiz.pdf (558.76 Kbytes)
Publishing Date
2006-04-04
 
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