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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2004.tde-27102004-154503
Document
Author
Full name
Luciane Kern Junqueira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2004
Supervisor
Committee
Berti Filho, Evoneo (President)
Brito, Jose Otavio
Diehl, Elena Maria de Oliveira
Schlindwein, Marcelo Nivert
Vendramim, Jose Djair
Title in Portuguese
Diversidade de térmitas em cultivos de eucalipto e fragmentos florestais na Estação Experimental de Ciências Florestais - ESALQ/USP, Anhembi, SP.
Keywords in Portuguese
análise de variância
biodiversidade
cupim (controle)
desmatamento
eucalipto
florestas
zoologia (classificação)
Abstract in Portuguese
Este trabalho objetivou descrever as comunidades de térmitas em sete ambientes florestais, que incluíram florestas de eucalipto de diferentes idades, um fragmento florestal, e ambientes em processo de sucessão inicial e avançada em Anhembi, SP. Por ambiente, foram identificados os grupos taxonômicos de térmitas, determinando a riqueza e a abundância relativa das espécies. Para tanto, em cada ambiente foi traçado um transecto de 100 m x 5 m, dividido em dez setores intercalados cada um com 15 m2. Por setor, foram realizadas amostragens em serrapilheira, raízes e restos de madeira, em toras, sob galhos e troncos, em ninhos e demais micro-habitats, além de dez blocos de solo (1.000 cm3) e através de isca Termitrap®. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância (ANOVA) e análise faunística onde foram calculados, pelo programa ANAFAU, o índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiaver (H'), o índice de abundância e o índice de eqüitabilidade. A similaridade entre as comunidades foi avaliada através da análise de Cluster. Foram obtidas 1.196 amostras de térmitas, distribuídas entre as famílias Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae e Termitidae. A riqueza total foi de 17 espécies, variando de oito a treze por ambiente. Três morfo-espécies de Apicotermitinae, Heterotermes tenuis, Cornitermes sp., Diversitermes diversimiles e Embiratermes sp. apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto a abundância relativa entre os ambientes avaliados. As morfo-espécies de Apicotermitinae não tiveram sua riqueza e abundância reduzidas devido a implantação do eucalipto. Os calotermitídeos, Glyptotermes sp., Neotermes sp. e Rugitermes sp., mesmo com abundâncias relativas baixas, tiveram sua ocorrência vinculada a presença de madeira no solo. Os maiores índices de diversidade foram registrados para o fragmento florestal e o ambiente em processo de sucessão avançada, sugerindo que para os plantios de eucalipto o período mais crítico à redução da diversidade de térmitas seria o segundo ano da implantação da floresta.
Title in English
Diversity of termites in eucalypt crops and forest fragments at the university of São Paulo experimental station of forestry sciences in Anhembi, state of São Paulo, Brazil.
Keywords in English
analysis of variance
biodiversity
deforest
eucalipt
forest
termite (control)
zoology (classificatio)
Abstract in English
This paper describes the termite communities from seven forest environments, including different aged eucalypt forests, one forest fragment and areas of initial and advanced succession process, in Anhembi, State of São Paulo, Brazil. All the environments evaluated were identified for the taxonomic groups of termites and had their richness and relative abundance of termite species determined. For each environment one extended a transect (100 m x 5 m), divided into 10 sectors (15 square meters each) in-between. Samples were taken from litter, roots and wood remainings, logs, under branches and trunks, termite nests and other microhabitats, besides ten soil parcels (1,000 cubic centimeters each) and by using Termitrap® baits. The data were submitted to ANOVA and faunistic analysis using the ANAFAU program for calculating the diversity index of Shannon-Wiaver (H'), and the abundance and equitability indexes. The similarity among the communities was evaluated through the Cluster analysis. There were obtained a total of 1,196 samplings of termites belonging to the families Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae. The total richness was 17 species, ranging from 8 to 13 in the different environments. Three morphospecies of Apicotermitinae, Heterotermes tenuis, Cornitermes sp., Diversitermes diversimiles and Embiratermes sp. presented significant differences as to relative abundance among the evaluated environments. The richness and abundance of the Apicotermitinae morphospecies were not reduced due to the eucalypt introduction. The occurrence of the Kalotermitidae, Glyptotermes sp., Neotermes sp. and Rugitermes sp., although presenting relatively low abundance, was observed to be due to the presence of wood in the soil. The highest diversity indexes were registered for the forest fragment and the advanced succession process areas. This suggests that, regarding the plantation of eucalypts, the most critical period for the reduction of termite diversity would be the second year after eucalypt introduction.
 
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Publishing Date
2005-06-16
 
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