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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2016.tde-01082016-155332
Document
Author
Full name
Víctor Alán Ríos Gálvez
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Righi, Ciro Abbud (President)
Bernardes, Marcos Silveira
Rodrigues, Carmem Lúcia
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação dos sistemas de cultivos tradicionais de três etnias indígenas: Asháninka, Shipibo Conibo e Cashibo Cacataibo localizadas ao longo dos rios Purus, Ucayali e Aguaytía, região Ucayali - Peru
Keywords in Portuguese
Agricultura indígena
Aldeias indígenas
Amazônia peruana
Derruba e queima
Sistema de uso-da-terra
Sistemas de cultivo indígenas
Abstract in Portuguese
O avanço dos sistemas agrícolas moderno-industriais sobre as áreas indígenas, a desvalorização dos sistemas de produção tradicionais e a descaracterização cultural das sociedades indígenas propicia a necessidade de conhecer as atividades agrícolas de etnias que ainda mantém sistemas tradicional de trabalho. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever os sistemas de produção tradicionais indígenas de três etnias: Asháninka, Shipibo Conibo e Cashibo Cacataibo, localizadas na bacia do rio Purus, Ucayali e Aguaytía, pertencente à Amazônia peruana estado de Ucayali, Peru. Para avaliar os sistemas tradicionais de cultivo das três etnias e seus modos de vida e inter-relações, foi utilizada a metodologia de Diagnóstico e Desenho, desenvolvida pelo International Centre of Reserach on Agroforestry (ICRAF). Foi verificado que os sistemas tradicionais de cultivo são adaptados às condições locais, sendo praticados sob o regime hídrico natural de enchente e vazante (agricultura de várzea), assim como também a agricultura itinerante de derrubada e queima. Entre os principais cultivos no período de verão, época de menor precipitação (abril a setembro) quando ocorre a vazante dos rios, destacam-se o feijão, amendoim e melancia, enquanto banana, milho, mandioca, batata-doce, arroz e abacaxi são cultivados no período de inverno, época das chuvas (outubro a março). Além da agricultura, a atividade de caça, pesca artesanal e colheita de frutas nativas também são praticadas como um modo de subsistência. Foi concluído que, assim como os aspectos culturais, as atividades agrícolas também são distintas entre as etnias indígenas e portanto, o conhecimento tradicional deve ser valorizado de forma particular a cada etnia.
Title in English
Of traditional cropping systems evaluation of three indigenous groups, Asháninka, Shipibo Conibo and Cashibo Cacataibo, located along the river Purus, Ucayali and Aguaytía, Ucayali region - Peru
Keywords in English
Deforestation and burn out
Earth usage system
Indigenous agriculture
Indigenous tribes
Peruvian Amazon
Production system
Abstract in English
Due to the advance of the modern industrial agricultural systems over indigenous areas, to the devaluation of the traditional farming systems and to the cultural mischaracterization of indigenous communities, it is made necessary to know and to propose improvements to their agricultural practices. In that sense, this work describes the traditional indigenous farming systems of three ethnicities: Asháninka, Shipibo Konibo and Cashibo Cacataibo, placed at the basin of the rivers Purús, Ucayali and Aguaytía, which belong to the Peruvian Amazon in the state of Ucayali, Peru Republic. Besides the studied ethnicities, many others also live in the area. For the evaluation of the traditional farming systems of these ethnicities, the method employed has been the one developed by the International Centre of Research on Agroforestry (ICRAF) of Diagnose and Drawing. The traditional farming methods are adapted to the local conditions, are practiced under the natural water regime of flood and ebb (lowland agriculture), as well as deslocating agriculture. Among the cultivations of summer - season with less rain (between April and September) -, during the rivers ebb, the highlights are beans, peanuts and watermelon, while banana, corn, manioc, sweet potato, rice and pineapple are grown in winter time - rain season (from October to March). Besides agriculture, hunting activities, fishing and native fruits picking are also seen as survival skills in the forest. It was concluded that, as well as cultural aspects, agricultural activities are also distinct from the indigenous ethnic groups and therefore traditional knowledge should be valued in a particular way every ethnicity.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-08-23
 
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