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Doctoral Thesis
Full name
Eloá Moura Araujo
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Piracicaba, 2018
Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo Ferracciú (President)
Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino
Kamogawa, Marcos Yassuo
Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo
Pires, Adriana Marlene Moreno
Title in English
Bioconcentration and desorption kinetic of potentially toxic elements in soils cultivated with horticultural crops in organic and conventional systems
Keywords in English
Agricultural soils
Heavy metals
Nonequilibrium system
Organic amendment
Abstract in English
Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) can be absorbed and accumulated in vegetables organ and tissues, and this is an important channel through which PTEs can enter into the food chain. Soil management may interfere in the behavior of PTEs in the system. So, the study of the dynamics of elements in the soil is fundamental to a better understanding of factors that influence soil-plant transfer. In the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, the production of vegetables is mainly concentrated in small or medium organic and conventional farms located in the Agreste and Sao Francisco regions. Our aims in this research were: i) to determine the contents of PTEs in soil and in vegetables produced under conventional and organic systems in garden soils of Pernambuco; ii) to investigate the forms of the PTEs and their uptake by the vegetables based on different soil-plant transfer factors; iii) to use the calculated transfer factors to assess the human risk exposure; iv) to assess the effect of aging and organic matter (OM) on copper (Cu) desorption in garden soils; v) to determine if manure application to soils increases water soluble Cu concentrations; and vi) to verify the efficiency of machine learning techniques in the classification of vegetables produced under organic and conventional systems. Acid and complexing solutions were employed to extract total contents of PTEs in plants and to extract pseudototal, reactive and bioavailable fractions of the PTEs in soils. Soil-plant transfer factors and human risk assessment were calculated based on the determined levels of PTEs. Kinetic assays were developed using rates of organic composts added to Cu-spiked soils to model the Cu desorption. Water extractable Cu and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were extracted from soils amended with dairy manure, and the Cu-DOC interactions were studied using spectroscopic techniques. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves had the highest capacity to accumulate PTEs; conventional system promoted higher PTEs values in soils and plants than the organic production; regardless of the scenario, children and adults in contact to vegetables cropped in organic system have a lower health risk than individuals exposed to lettuce leaves conventionally produced. The addition of OM promoted greater Cu desorption, while aging lead to a reduction in the Cu release. The Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed increase in the presence of aliphatic and carboxylic groups in the extracts from the manure-amended soils. Carboxylic acid functional groups on the DOC formed strong bonds with Cu, which can promote Cu transport as dissolved Cu-organic complexes in the soil profile. The Support Vector Machine had an accuracy over 90% to classify the vegetables in the two groups (organic and conventional); and this high assertiveness rate highlights the potential of using elemental quantification and algorithms as support techniques in the process of authenticity and inspection of organic products.
Title in Portuguese
Bioconcentração e cinética de dessorção de elementos potencialmente tóxicos em solos hortícolas sob sistemas orgânico e convencional
Keywords in Portuguese
Compostos orgânicos
Metais pesados
Sistemas em não-equilíbrio
Solos agrícolas
Abstract in Portuguese
Elementos potencialmente toxicos (EPTs) podem estar biodisponiveis para serem absorvidos e acumulados nos tecidos e orgaos vegetais, sendo esta uma importante rota de entrada de EPTs na cadeia alimentar. O manejo do solo pode interferir no comportamento dos EPTs no sistema. Desta forma, o estudo da dinamica desses elementos no solo e fundamental para melhor entendimento dos fatores que influenciam a transferencia solo-planta. No estado de Pernambuco, a producao de hortalicas se concentra em intensos cultivos organicos e convencionais localizados em pequenas ou medias propriedades, principalmente na regiao Agreste e Sao Francisco. Nossos objetivos neste trabalho foram: i) determinar os teores de EPTs no solo e nas hortalicas produzidas em sistemas convencionais e organicos em hortas de Pernambuco; ii) investigar as formas de EPTs e sua absorcao pelas hortalicas com base em diferentes fatores de transferencia solo-planta; iii) usar os fatores de transferencia calculados para investigar o risco de exposicao aos humanos; iv) estudar o efeito do tempo e da materia organica (MO) na dessorcao de cobre (Cu) em solos de horta; v) determinar se a aplicacao de esterco aumenta a concentracao de Cu soluvel em agua; e vi) verificar a eficiencia de tecnicas machine learning na classificacao de hortalicas produzidas em sistemas organicos e convencionais. Solucoes acidas e complexantes foram utilizadas para extrair os teores totais de EPTs nas plantas e os teores pseudototal, reativo e biodisponivel dos EPTs no solo. Fatores de transferencia solo-planta e avaliacao de risco humano foram calculados com base nos teores de EPTs. Estudos de cinetica foram desenvolvidos apos adicao de composto organico em solos contaminados com Cu para modelar a dessorcao de Cu. Cu soluvel em agua e carbono organico dissolvido (COD) foram extraidos de solos adubados com esterco, a interacao Cu-COD foi estudada usando tecnicas espectroscopicas. Folhas de alface (Lactuca sativa) apresentaram a maior capacidade de acumular EPTS; o sistema convencional promoveu maiores tores de EPTs nos solos e plantas do que o sistema organico; independentemente do cenario, criancas e adultos em contato com vegetais produzidos em sistema organico tem um menor risco do que os individuos que consomem folhas de alface convencionalmente produzidas. A adicao de MO promoveu maior dessorcao de Cu, enquanto o aumento no tempo de contato reduziu a liberacao de Cu. Os graficos da espectroscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier mostraram um aumento na presenca de grupos funcionais alifaticos e carboxilicos nos extratos de solos adubados com esterco. Esses grupos funcionais no COD formam ligacoes fortes com Cu, o que promove o transporte do elemento na forma de complexos organicos dissolvidos no perfil do solo. O modelo Support Vector Machine apresentou acuracia superior a 90% na classificacao das hortalicas em dois grupos (organicas e convencionais); e a alta taxa de assertividade mostra o potencial do uso de quantificacao elementar e algoritmos como tecnicas auxiliares no processo de autenticidade de inspecao de produtos organicos.
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