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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2006.tde-13112006-080838
Document
Author
Full name
Camila Beig Jordão
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo Ferracciú (President)
Camargo, Otavio Antonio de
Prochnow, Luis Ignacio
Rossetto, Raffaella
Torrado, Pablo Vidal
Title in Portuguese
Especiação e grau de saturação de fósforo em latossolo tratado com lodo de esgoto
Keywords in Portuguese
Adsorção
Extrator químico
Fósforo
Latossolo
Lodo de esgoto
Poluição do solo
Química do solo
Solução do solo
Abstract in Portuguese
Devido ao aumento populacional e industrial nos grandes centros urbanos aumentou também a quantidade de lodo de esgoto gerada, a qual constitui, hoje, um dos grandes problemas da sociedade moderna. A alternativa mais viável, atualmente, é a disposição do lodo no solo, por se tratar de uma fonte de nutrientes como N, P, Ca, matéria orgânica (MO) etc. Porém, o uso indiscriminado pode causar danos ao meio ambiente, como a eutrofização dos corpos d´água, causada pelo acúmulo de fósforo no solo. Pesquisas envolvendo o comportamento de P no solo são diversas, porém são escassas as que utilizam lodo de esgoto como fonte de P e quantificam adsorção, biodisponibilidade, espécies na solução e perdas no meio ambiente. O presente estudo foi conduzido em amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (LVdf) coletadas em experimento da Embrapa Meio-Ambiente, localizado em Jaguariúna (SP), no qual foi adicionado lodo de esgoto desde 1999. A coleta foi realizada no ano de 2003, após a aplicação do lodo de esgoto, nas profundidades de 0-0,1; 0,1-0,2 e 0,2-0,4m. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = Testemunha absoluta; T2 = Lodo de esgoto com base na sua concentração de nitrogênio; T3 = Duas vezes a quantidade de lodo de esgoto aplicada no T2, e T4 = Quatro vezes a quantidade de lodo de esgoto aplicada no T2. Os objetivos desse estudo foram avaliar a especiação iônica do fósforo da solução do solo e o risco de perdas de P do LVdf por meio do Grau de Saturação de Fósforo (GSP) do solo. Foram também comparados os valores de P disponível extraído com Mehlich 1, resina trocadora de íons e tiras impregnadas com ferro. A adsorção do fósforo foi menor na camada mais superficial (0-0,1 m), devido ao maior teor de MO do que o das amostras subsuperficiais. A seqüência de predominância das espécies de fósforo foi: P livre >>P-Al > P-Fe = P-Ca. Os valores de P extraídos com as tiras impregnadas com óxidos de Fe tiveram correlação positiva e significativa com o P extraído com Mehlich-1 e com a resina. O GSP expressou bem a capacidade de adsorção de P do LVdf tratado com o lodo de esgoto industrial e teve correlação positiva com os três extratores utilizados.
Title in English
Phosphorus speciation and degree of phosphorus saturation of an Oxisol amended with sewage sludge
Keywords in English
Adsorption
Extractor
Ionic speciation
Oxisols
Phosphorus
Pollution
Sewage sludge
Soil
Abstract in English
Because of the population and industrial increase in the great urban centers, the amount of generated sewage sludge (SS) has also increased, and it constitutes, today, one of the great problems of modern society. The most viable alternative seems to be the land disposal of the sludge, since it is a source of nutrients as N, P, Ca, organic matter (OM) etc. However, the indiscriminate use can cause damages to the environment, as the eutrophication of aquifers, caused by phosphorus accumulation in the soil. Research regarding the behavior of P in soil is of common occurrence. However, the ones that quantify the adsorption, bioavailability, speciation of soil solution and losses of nutrients in areas amended with SS are scarce. The present study was carried out with samples of a Rhodic Hapludox, (RH) collected in a field experiment of the Embrapa Meio-Ambiente, located in Jaguariúna (SP), in which SS was added since 1999. Samples were collected in 2003, at the depths of 0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, and 0.2-0.4m, after five years of SS application. Treatments were: T1 = absolute control; T2 = Amount of SS calculated on basis of N concentration; T3 = Twice of SS amount applied in the T2, and T4 = Four times the SS amount in the T2. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ionic speciation of P in soil solution and the risk of P losses in the RH by means of the degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS). The values of available P extracted by Melhlich 1, ionic exchangeable resin, and strips impregnated with iron were also compared. Soil P adsorption was lower in upper layer (0-0.1 m) than in the subsurface ones, probably to its larger OM content. The sequence of predominance of P species in soil solution was: Free P >> P-Al > P-Fe = P-Ca. Values of P extracted by the Festrips had positive and significant correlation with the P extracted with Mehlich-1 and the resin. The DPS expressed well the capacity of P adsorption by the RH amended with SS and had positive correlation with the P extracted by the three studied extractors.
 
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Publishing Date
2006-11-13
 
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