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Doctoral Thesis
Full name
João Ricardo Rebouças Dorea
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Piracicaba, 2014
Santos, Flavio Augusto Portela (President)
Bittar, Carla Maris Machado
Ruggieri, Ana Cláudia
Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro
Silva, Sila Carneiro da
Title in English
Energy supplementation for beef steers grazing tropical grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cv Marandu) managed under rotational system with different initial sward heights
Keywords in English
Beef cattle
Grazing management
Tropical grass
Abstract in English
Two trials were conducted simultaneously to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation for cattle grazing tropical pastures managed with different initial sward heights on DMI and ruminal fermentation of cattle grazing intensively managed tropical grass during the rainy season. Eight 24-month-old rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were used per trial (Trial 1: 300 kg BW ± 5.97, Trial 2: 343 kg BW ± 7.40) allocated in two 4x4 Latin squares. Treatments corresponded to 0 (mineral supplementation) and a 0.3 (0.3% of BW of ground corn as fed basis) combined with 2 pre-grazing sward heights (25 and 35 cm). The stubble height was 15 cm. In the second trial the level of supplementation was 0.6% BW of ground corn as fed basis. Steers were managed in 2 ha of Palisadegrass pasture (Brachiaria brizantha marandu). Pastures were fertilized with 120 kg nitrogen/ha and averaged 13.8 and 11.0% CP and 58.8 and 63.4% NDF, for 25 and 35 cm, respectively The forage and the diet DM and CP digestibility were greater (P<0.05) for 25 then for 35 cm grazing management. For both trials 1 and 2, cattle grazing the pastures with 25 cm initial sward height consumed more forage DMI, more total DMI and more energy (P<0.05) and at the same time steers spent less time grazing (P<0.05) and more time resting (P<0.05), presented greater bite rates (P<0.05), less steps per day and less steps between feeding stations (P<0.05), when compared with cattle grazing the 35 cm pastures. Rumen pH values were less (P<0.05 in trial 1; P<0.1 in trial 2) and concentrations of rumen N-NH3 and retention of N were greater (P<0.05) for cattle grazing the 25 cm pastures while rumen VFA and microbial synthesis were not affected (P>0.05) by pasture management. Supplementing energy at 0.3% (trial 1) increased (P<0.05) diet DM digestibility while feeding energy at 0.6% (trial 2) decreased forage CP digestibility, increased (P<0.05) forage NDF digestibility and increased diet DM (P<0.05) and diet NDF (P<0.1) digestibility. Supplementing energy at 0.3% (trial 1) or at 0.6% (trial 2) decreased forage DMI (P<0.05) and substitution rates were 1.63 and 0.72, respectively. The total DMI and energy intake were not increased (P>0.05) by supplementing energy at 0.3% while increasing energy supplementation to 0.6% was effective to increase total DMI and energy intake of cattle grazing tropical forage, independent of initial sward height. Energy supplementation decreased (P<0.05) grazing time, but it did not affect (P>0.05) any other grazing behavior parameter. Supplementing grazing cattle with 0.3% had no effect (P>0.05) on rumen pH, N retention and microbial synthesis, increased (P<0.05) rumen propionate and decreased (P<0.05) rumen N-NH3, rumen acetate and acetate:propionate ratio. Supplementing grazing cattle with 0.6% decreased (P<0.05) rumen pH, rumen N-NH3, rumen acetate and acetate:propionate ratio, while it increased (P<0.05) rumen propionate, N retention and microbial synthesis. Plasma glucose was not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The pre-grazing sward height of 25 cm and feeding energy supplement at 0.6% of BW were efficient strategies to increase energy intake of cattle grazing Palisadegrass.
Title in Portuguese
Suplementação energética para bovinos mantidos em pastagem tropical (Brachiaria brizantha, cv Marandu) manejados em sistema de pastejo rotativo com diferentes alturas de entrada
Keywords in Portuguese
Forragem tropical
Gado de corte
Manejo da pastagem
Abstract in Portuguese
Dois experimentos foram conduzidos simultaneamente, para avaliar o uso da suplementação energética para bovinos manejados em diferentes alturas de entrada na pastagem. Foram usados 8 novilhos Nelore canulados no rumen por experimento (Exp. 1: 300 kg de PC ± 5,97, Exp. 2: 343 kg PC ± 7,40) distribuídos em 2 quadrados latinos 4x4. Os tratamentos para o Exp. 1 foram 0 (suplementação mineral) e 0,3 (0,3% do PC em milho moído) combinados com 2 alturas de entrada (25 e 35 cm). A altura de saída foi 15 cm. No Exp. 2 o nível de suplementação foi 0,6% do PC em milho moído. Os animais foram manejados em 2 ha de Capim Marandu, os quais foram adubados com 120 kg de N/há, apresentando valores médios de 13,8 e 11,0% de PB e 58,8 e 63,4% de FDN para pastos de 25 and 35 cm, respectivamente. A DMS e DPB da forragem e da dieta foram maiores (P<0,05) para o manejo da pastagem de 25 cm do que 35. Em ambos os experimentos, o CMS de forragem, energia e total foi maior (P<0,05) para o tratamento de 25 cm, que ao mesmo tempo promoveu menor tempo de pastejo (P<0,05), maior tempo em ócio (P<0,05) e taxa de bocado (P<0,05), menor número de passos por dia e passos entre estações de pastejo (P<0,05), quando comparados com animais mantidos no tratamento de 35 cm. O pH ruminal foi menor (P<0,05 no Exp. 1; P<0,10 no Exp. 2), a N-NH3 ruminal e retenção do N foram maiores (P<0,05) para animais manejados na altura de entrada de 25 cm. Os AGVs e a síntese microbiana não foram afetados (P>0,05) pelo manejo da pastagem. A suplementação em 0,3% (Exp. 1) aumentou (P<0,05) a DMS da dieta, enquanto a suplementação de 0,6% (Exp. 2) reduziu a DPB da forragem (P<0,05), aumentou a digestibilidade da FDN da forragem (P<0,05) e a DMS (P<0,05) e da FDN da dieta (P<0,01). A suplementação em 0,3% (Exp. 1) ou em 0,6% (Exp. 2) reduziu o CMS de foragem (P<0,05) e as taxas de substituição foram 1.63 and 0.72, respectivamente. O CMS total e de energia não foram aumentados (P>0,05) pela suplementação em 0,3%, enquanto o nível de 0,6% foi efetivo em aumentar o CMS total e de energia de bovinos mantidos em pastagem tropical, independente do manejo da pastagem. A suplementação reduziu o tempo de pastejo (P<0,05). Animais suplementados com 0,3% não alteraram (P>0,05) o pH ruminal, a retenção de N e síntese microbia, mas aumentaram (P<0,05) propionato no rumen e diminuíram (P<0,05) N-NH3 ruminal, acetato e relação acetato:propionato. A suplementação com 0,6% diminuiu (P<0,05) o pH ruminal, N-NH3 ruminal, acetato e relação acetato:propionato no rumen, aumentaram (P<0,05) o propionato no rumen, a retenção de N e a síntese microbiana. A glicose plasmática não foi alterada (P>0,05). A altura de pré-pastejo de 25 cm e a suplementação energética de 0,6% do PC foram estratégias eficientes para aumentar o consumo de energia de bovinos mantidos em pastagens de Capim Marandu.
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  • DÓREA, J. R. R., et al. Effects of levels of energetic supplementation on forage intake and ruminal fermentation in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures. In 2011 ADSA-PSA-AMPA-CSAS-ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, New Orleans, 2011. Journal of Animal Science.Champrign/IL, EUA : American Society of Animal Science, 2011. Resumo.
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