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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2015.tde-18062015-112757
Document
Author
Full name
Janaina Rosolem Lima
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Nussio, Luiz Gustavo (President)
Abdalla, Adibe Luiz
Daniel, João Luiz Pratti
Medeiros, Sérgio Raposo de
Ribeiro, Claudio Vaz di Mambro
Title in Portuguese
Impacto da variabilidade populacional na degradabilidade ruminal in situ em touros alimentados com forragens de baixa qualidade
Keywords in Portuguese
Análises multivariadas
Dieta com alta fibra
Fibra de baixa qualidade
Taxa fracional de degradação
Abstract in Portuguese
Estudos in situ comumente são conduzidos com pequeno número de animais, existindo poucos trabalhos enfocando o impacto da variabilidade animal sobre seus resultados. O objetivo deste estudo foi explorar o efeito da variabilidade animal sobre as taxas fracionais de degradação (kd) de MS, FDN, FDA e CEL de forragens. Foi conduzido experimento utilizando trinta novilhos Nelore portadores de cânula ruminal (372 ± 16,02 kg P.V.). Dieta 1, todos os animais receberam dieta contendo 100% feno de Coast-cross + sal mineral, ambos ad libitum. Na Dieta 2, todos os animais receberam dieta com 88% de bagaço de cana in natura, 8% de farelo de soja, 2,8% de premix mineral e 1,2% de uréia. Em ambos os períodos foram incubadas amostras de feno de Coast-cross (Fc) (7,31% PB; 78,24% FDN; 40,92% FDA), bagaço de cana-de-açuçar (BAG) (3,04% PB; 90,31% FDN; 69,36% FDA) e feno Tifton-85 (Ft) (13,32% PB; 73,27% FDN; 39,29% FDA) em sacos de poliamida (10 cm x 20 cm; 30 ± 10 μm porosidade) nos tempos 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 144 h. Os sacos foram suspensos no saco ventral do rúmen em ordem reversa e removidos simultaneamente no tempo zero. Os teores de MS, FDN, FDA e lignina nos resíduos foram determinados por química líquida e a CEL foi calculada por subtração do teor de lignina da fração do FDA. A cinética de degradação ruminal de MS, FDN, FDA e CEL foram calculadas de acordo com o modelo não linear Y(t) = a + b (1 - e(-kd × t) ); onde t >= 0. As atividades de comportamento ingestivo (ingestão, ruminação, ingestão de água e ócio) foram registradas em intervalos de 10 minutos durante 24 horas. Análise de Componentes Principais foi utilizada para determinar a correlação entre substratos; Análise Fatorial para caracterizar a população de animais (P<0,05); Análise de Agrupamento e Contrastes Multivariados para compor grupos dentro da população (P<0,01) e Análise de Correlação Canônica para determinar correlação entre kd e comportamento ingestivo (P<0,01). Simulação entre número de animais e coeficiente de variação (CV) foi realizada na tentativa de estimar a quantidade adequada de repetições para estes estudos. As médias de kd para MS, FDN, FDA e CEL foram: 3,26; 3,29; 3,44 e 3,54 para Fc; 3,74; 3,88; 4,07 e 4,49 para Ft; e 2,67; 2,68; 2,58 e 2,65 para BAG respectivamente. Foram compostos três níveis de kd para Fc e Ft (alto, médio e baixo) e quatro para BAG (alto, médio alto, médio baixo e baixo). O CV é adequado para mensuração da precisão do ensaio, sendo mais indicado o índice de variação (IV). Em ambas as fases, para todos os substratos, não houve correlação entre kd e comportamento ingestivo. As diferentes correlações de kd entre substratos para as duas fases, demonstra a influência da dieta ofertada sobre o kd. O estudo da variabilidade e o IV indicam que o número de animais é dependente do substrato avaliado, porém o estudo da variabilidade demonstra que os indivíduos que compõe este número são distintos entre dietas.
Title in English
Impact of animal variability on in situ ruminal degradability in bulls fed low quality forages
Keywords in English
Cynodon sp hay
In situ Fractional rate of disappearance
high fiber diet
low quality fiber
NDF
neutral detergent fiber
sugarcane bagasse
Abstract in English
In situ studies are general carried out with a few number of animals and there are few trials that inquire the impact of animal variability on these results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of animal population variability on fractional disappearance rate (kd) of DM, NDF, ADF and cellulose (CEL). Experiment using thirty ruminally canullated Nellore bulls (372 ± 16.02 kg BW) was carried over. In phase 1, all animals received 100% Coast-cross hay with mineral mix ad libitum. In period 2, all animals received a diet containing 88% sugarcane bagasse, 8% soybean meal, 2.8% mineral mix and 1.2% urea (DM basis). In both trials, representative samples of Coast-cross hay (CCH - 7.31% CP, 78.24% NDF, 40.92% ADF), sugarcane bagasse (BAG - 3.04% CP, 90.31% NDF, 69.36% ADF) and Tifton-85 hay (TH - 13.32% CP, 73.27% NDF, 39.29% ADF) were incubated in polyamide-bags (10 cm × 20 cm; 30 ± 10 μm pore size) for 0, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 144 h. Bags were suspended in the rumen ventral sac before at feeding in reverse order and removed simultaneously at time zero. Residual DM, NDF, ADF, and lignin were determined by wet chemistry. Cellulose (CEL) was calculated as ADF minus lignin. Ruminal degradation kinetics of DM, NDF, ADF, and CEL were calculated using a nonlinear model Y(t) = a + b (1 - e(-kd × t) ); where t >= 0. Feeding behavior parameters (eating, ruminating, water drinking and idling) were recorded every 10 minutes during 24 h. Principal component analysis was used to determine correlation of variables among substrates. Factorial Analysis was used to characterize animal population (P<0.05), Cluster with Multivariate Contrasts (P<0.01) to analyze differences in kd groups and Multivariate Canonical correlation analysis (P<0.05) to correlate kd with feeding behavior parameters. A simulation with number of animals was done against coefficient of variation (CV) to determinate optimum number of animals in an in situ assay. The kd (average) of DM, NDF, ADF, and CEL were: 3.26, 3.29, 3.44 and 3.54 for CCH; 3.74, 3.88, 4.07 and 4.49 for TH; and 2.67, 2.68, 2.58 and 2.65 for BAG, respectively. There was no correlation among substrates in both periods. Were found three groups of kd for CCH and TH (high, medium and low) and four groups for BAG (high, medium-high, medium, and low). CV is not adequate to measure experimental precision, instead it, variation index is indicated (VI). In both incubations phases, there was no relationship between feeding behavior and kd, for all incubated forages sources. The kd correlations among substrates between two incubation phases were different, indicating influence of the diet on kd. Variability investigation and VI parameter indicate that the number of animals necessary in these trials is affected by the substrate incubated. However, the variability investigation suggests that probably different animals compose this number.
 
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Publishing Date
2015-07-01
 
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